Here is a picture of General Paul Magloire being decorated by Haitian President Dumarsais Estimé
Magloire was from the rising, black middle-class in Haiti. "Kanson Fé" or "Iron Pants"), as he was known, Magloire overthrew the disastrous regime of President Elie Lescot in 1946. He later allowed the election of a liberal black president, Dumarsais Estimé. When President Dumarsais Estimé, tried to extend his term of office in 1950, with the help of a local elite, Magloire ousted him and took power.
Paul Magloire ("Kanson Fé) being Decorated by President Dumarsais Estimé
Paul Eugène Magloire (July 19, 1907 - July 12, 2001) was a Haitian general's son. He joined the army in 1930 and became Police Chief of Port-au-Prince in 1944. In 1946, he participated in a successful coup against President Élie Lescot. In 1950, while he was serving as an army general, he ousted President Dumarsais Estimé with the help of a local elite and installed himself as ruler.
Before the long dictatorship of the Duvaliers which took the country back again in a period of oppression, his period of rule as president between 1950 and 1956 is marked as a period of unusual peace and efforts at modernization. Many consider Magloire's period as Haiti's golden age - during his era, tourism reached at its peak and Haitian coffee exports drew high prices. He refurbished towns and built roads, a cathedral, public square, the country's first major dam and other infrastructure projects and cultivated good relations with the Dominican Republic. Attempts were made to invite foreign investments and implement economic and social planning. Women were given voting power and direct popular election of the president was introduced.
However, the good days ended in 1954 when Haiti was hit by Hurricane Hazel. The hurricane inflicted heavy damage on the economy, relief funds were stolen, and Magloire's popularity fell. After two years, he was ousted by the military and went into exile in New York. When François Duvalier took the presidency, he stripped Magloire of his Haïtian citizenship. At the end of Duvalier dictatorship in 1986, when Jean-Claude Duvalier (Baby Doc) fled to France, Magloire returned to Haiti. He was an unofficial adviser to Henri Namphy, who briefly ruled Haiti in 1988. It was a mark of appreciation for his past deed to the country.
The mulattos were happy under the reign of Magloire because their shameless privilege and racism received patronage and reached the apogee of their power, and Magloire's tough stand (Kanson Fé) with the mulattos took them to a height of command and enjoyment. He restored the elites to the prominence.
Henri Namphy (November 2, 1932 - June 26, 2018)
Henri Namphy was a Haitian general and political figure who served as President of Haiti's interim ruling body, the National Council of Government, from February 7, 1986 to February 7, 1988.
He Once again served as President of Haiti from June 20, to September 17, 1988. He is buried in the Dominican Republic, where he was exiled after being overthrown in September 1988 by Prosper Avril.
Chief of General Staff of the Haitian Armed Forces, Brigadier General Sadrac Saintil, represented the General Staff and the Ministry of Defense as well as Antonio Rodrigue, the Minister of Foreign Affairs was also present at the funeral to represent the Haitian government.
Henri Namphy (November 2, 1932), was a former Haitian coup leader and Lieutenant General who served the country in the Armed Forces of Haiti (FADH), died in a hospital in the Dominican Republic on Tuesday, June 26, 2018, following a battle with lung cancer. He served as the President of Haiti's interim ruling body, the National Council of Government, from February 7, 1986 to February 7, 1988. In February 1988, he was replaced by Leslie Manigat, elected President, who put him under arrest for insubordination. However, General Namphy's popularity and influence helped him to regain power in June 1988 where he remained until the September 1988 coup.
Namphy served as President of Haiti from June 20, 1988, but was deposed three months later on September 17, 1988 in a coup d'état when a group of non-commissioned officers in the Haitian Presidential Guard removed Namphy and brought General Prosper Avril to power. Earlier, in June 1988, Namphy overthrew Leslie Manigat in a coup d'état. Manigat was elected as President of Haiti in a tightly controlled military held election in January 1988. Following his deposition in the September coup, Namphy fled to the Dominican Republic and never returned to Haiti.
In 1986, when with the fall of his government, Jean-Claude Duvalier (appointed by his dying father as "President-for-Life") fled into exile in France with his family, Henri Namphy formed an interim government consisting six civilians and military members and promised elections and democratic reforms. However, his regime has been nicknamed as "Duvalierism without Duvalier". Namphy enjoyed the reputation of being honest and apolitical. As per his wish, he has been buried at the Cristo Redentor cemetery, Santo Domingo.
Here is a picture of some former military of FADH in the streets of Port-au-Prince in February, 2016.
Haitian army was disbanded by former Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide in 1995, because of their notorious record of toppling Haitian governments since the country's independence two centuries earlier. Ironically, Aristide himself was twice ousted in coups; last and the second time, he was toppled by a US-backed military coup back in 2004. In last November, President Martelly and Prime Minister Evans Paul through a decree, the "Conseil Des Ministres", energized the former army men by taking steps to revive the armed forces. A Defence Minister was named, unit of military engineers was recreated, and some recruits were sent to Ecuador for training. Jean Fednel Lafalaise, a former sergeant in his 60s told Reuters, we need a commander-in-chief and a high command at the head of the military so that we can function normally. Earlier, President Martelly has repeatedly pledged that the army would be revived to protect the border, coastlines and the country's few remaining forests. However, following the election debacle, the ex-military people were seen rallying in support of both the outgoing President Michel Martelly and his hand-picked candidate Jovenel Moïse for the next presidential race. While driving through the capital in convoys, some of them were waving weapons and firing into the air.
Here is a picture where an Ex Haitian soldier became victim during an anti-government demonstrators.
Martelly was due to leave his office within February 7th, but the squabbled politicians of the country failed to complete the recent election process with a runoff and elect a successor for the outgoing President Martelly. Some of the weak opposition leaders are demanding the comeback of former President Aristide as an interim leader as a replacement. We might remember that Aristide disbanded the Haitian army in 1995 in an attempt to end the military dominance over the Haitian politicians, because it had records of toppling governments since the Haitian independence two centuries earlier. Aristide was twice ousted in coups; lastly he was toppled by a US-backed military coup back in 2004. The politicians are also discussing several other options like appointing a Supreme Court judge or a new prime minister to run an interim government. Last year, Martelly energized the former army men by taking steps to revive the armed forces and he has repeatedly pledged that it would be revived to protect the border, coastlines and the country's few remaining forests. However, as per the news report, the ex-military people were rallying in support of both the outgoing President Michel Martelly and his hand-picked candidate Jovenel Moïse for the next presidential race. While driving through the capital in convoys, some of them were waving weapons and firing into the air. The victim was carrying a small card bearing the image of ruling-party candidate Jovenel Moise.
Here is a picture Haitian Police Force, also known as Garde D'Haiti which later became FAD'H being trained during US Occupation of Haiti
In spite of the resentment with their occupation, the Americans during their 19 years of occupation built many new roads, schools, irrigation, agricultural projects, piers and many lighthouses. They also trained an important political force, the Haitian National Police force (Garde D'Haiti). However, the great depression of the 1930s forced the U.S to justify its huge spending to occupy an unpromising land like Haiti. In 1930, the U.S President Hoover, sent a delegation to the Haitian President Louis Borno for considering to hold elections and began the process of withdrawing American administrators and forces. The last Marine left Haiti on August 15, 1934 after a formal transfer of authority to the Haitian military Garde d'Haiti. However, a small American delegation remained there till 1941 to defend American economic interests.
It was reported that over a dozen armed bandits dressed in military claiming to be former FADH military have terrorized the population of Arcahaie today. According to witnesses, they burned Police Station in Saint-Medard and also took the opportunity to rob a credit Union in the same area.
Here is a picture of Mr. Williams Régala, a former member of Haiti's National Council of Government. He participated in the council of February 1986. During the dictatorship of Jean-Claude Duvalier, he was the head of the secret service. Williams Régala was also Minister of Defense during the short lived government of Leslie Manigat. He also occupied the position of Interior Minister under the National Council.
This is the picture of Williams Regala and Henri Namphy together.
General Henri Namphy (born November 2, 1932) had been always remained on close terms with the Duvalier family during their thirty years of monarchy. There he held several key positions such as the Deputy Commander of the Presidential Guard and Chief of Staff, but all the time he had distanced himself from the worst aspects of the Duvalier dictatorship like killing and other ugliness. He had maintained a close, cordial relationship with the brutal rulers. Some acquaintances describe him more as a counselor than a close friend. However, he is considered by many as a disciplined man and a good administrator with some down-to-earth bent. Once, a foreign diplomat who worked with him in a hurricane recovery operation termed him as ''a soldier's soldier.''
Here is a picture of Lt. Gen. Henri Namphy and Gen. Williams Regala 1988
When he went before the Haitian people to announce that he has seized power from the civilian President Leslie Manigat, there was no outpouring of admiration and support. Although he used to enjoy the reputation of being honest, his administration was rather known as "Duvalierism without Duvalier". His close acquaintances used to know him as a dedicated military man and "a great party-goer". His house always had parties, all the time and his friends were his life.
General Namphy had presided over one of the bloodiest and most chaotic periods in the recent Haitian history. The U.S government found that it was difficult to deal with General Namphy because he had failed in his every promise to restore democracy-- his attempt to hold election was better known as "debacle". He served his second term as the President from June 20, 1988 until his deposition on September 17, 1988 in a coup d'état.
Here is a picture of Colonel Henri Nanphy of the FADH Officers
On Feb. 7, 1986, when the Haitian dictator Baby Doc after the 30 years of own family dictatorship fled the country with his family into an exile, within a few hours of his departure, a five-member civilian-military council led by Lieutenant General Henri Namphy took the charge of the country. Henri quickly established himself on the council as the "first among equals" and served as the Interim President of the Haitian Ruling Body or National Council of Government between February 7, 1986 to February 7, 1988. His government promised free elections and democratic reforms. The first attempt of the election on November 1987, ended with the death of some three dozen voters who were killed in clashes as there was no security forces at the voting places, and instead some soldiers joined civilian thugs in the killing of at least 34 voters. In January 1988, Leslie Manigat won elections, but that was widely considered as fraudulent, and Namphy by overthrowing the civilian President, seized power in June 1988.