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Jean-Jacques Dessalines

Marie-Claire Heureuse Felicite Bonheur, spouse of Jean-Jacques Dessalines

Marie-Claire Heureuse Felicite Bonheur, spouse of Jean-Jacques Dessalines

Here is Marie-Claire Heureuse Félicité Bonheur, the spouse of Jean-Jacques Dessalines. The got married in 1800 and together they had seven children

This famous Haitian woman was born in the city of leogane and her family never knew slavery. Her Father was Guillaume Bonheur and mother, Marie-Élisabeth Sainte-Lobelot.

One great act she is known for was during the siege of the city of Jacmel in 1800. She took care of the wounded and starving soldiers and somehow managed to convince her husband Jean-Jacques Dessalines to allow those wounded in the city to get out in order to receive proper medical care. later on she went into the city with food and medicine.

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The Home of Marie-Claire Heureuse

The Home of Marie-Claire Heureuse

Here is a picture of the Home of Marie-Claire Heureuse.

Marie-Claire Heureuse Félicité Bonheur, the first Empress consort of the independent Haiti, was the daughter of two poor but free Haitians from Leogane. She was born sometime in 1758. After becoming widow of her first husband Pierre Lunic in 1795, she married Jean-Jacques Dessalines in 1800 and became the Empress consort of Haiti (1804-1806) as the spouse of Jean-Jacques Dessalines. In early 1804, when Jacques Dessalines (born 20 September 1758, died 17 October 1806) issued drastic order, the extermination of the entire White population of Haiti, Marie-Claire was adamantly opposed to this policy and she made no secret of the fact. From her earliest days, she had been a nurse and teacher by heart. She maintained her principles and values, relentlessly worked to alleviate the suffering of prisoners and wounded men irrespective of their colors and races. In 1843, she was granted a modest pension by the government, but it was not because she was a former imperial consort; it was offered because the government confiscated all of her husband's extensive properties leaving nothing to her. Marie died on 8 August 1858 (aged 99-100).

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Jean-Jacques Dessalines, AKA Papa Dessalines

Jean-Jacques Dessalines, AKA Papa Dessalines

Here is Jean-Jacques Dessalines, AKA Papa Dessalines.

During his speech for the inaugural ceremony on October 17th, President Martelly described Emperor Dessalines as some of very rare personalities who mark their place in the history in such a way that they never die'. Papa Dessalines' is still alive in the minds of all Haitians; he will remain alive in our consciousness, in our pride for our country forever.

As part of the commemoration of Emperor Dessalines's 209th death anniversary, the Ministry in partnership with the Haitian Amateur Athletics Federation (FHAA) organized a 10 km race for youth between 16 to 20 years, linking Pont Rouge to the statue of Emperor Jean Jacques Dessalines at the Champ-de-mars.

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Jean-Jacques Dessalines, founder of the Haitian nation

Jean-Jacques Dessalines, founder of the Haitian nation

Here is a statue erected for Jean-Jacques Dessalines, founder of the Haitian nation.

Dessalines was assassinated when he was only 48 years old; he was killed in a revolt on October 17, 1806, in Pont Rouge, near Port-au-Prince, Haiti. On October 17, 2015, President Martelly accompanied by Prime Minister Evans Paul and other members of the Government paid a tribute to the father of the nation on the day of his 209th death anniversary at the place of his assassination and inaugurated a plaque of him on a monument at Pont-Rogue. However, his exact death circumstances are still uncertain to many historians.

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Commemorating the death of Jean-Jacques Dessalines

Commemorating the death of Jean-Jacques Dessalines

Here is a picture as President Michel Martelly is Commemorating the death of Jean-Jacques Dessalines.

Jean-Jacques Dessalines defeated a French army at the 'Battle of Vertières' in 1803. On January 1, 1804, he named 'Saint-Domingue' as 'Haiti' and declared Haiti as an independent state proclaiming himself as the governor-general. The following September, he adopted the title of "Emperor Jacques I". Many historians consider him as the most ferocious leader in Haiti's history; he was cruel to the extreme. Between February and April 1804, he killed between 3,000 to 5,000 white minorities as an act of cleansing every French taint. He used to consider Europeans as cannibals and wanted them to tremble when they approach the Hispaniola coasts and his name horrifies all those who were slavers, and tyrants. However, there are some historians who believe that Dessalines became cruel because of the treatments he and other slaves received from their French masters. His message to the future generation of the country was: "I have performed my duty; I enjoy my own approbation. For me that is sufficient."

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Jean-Jacques Dessalines murdered October 17, 1806

Jean-Jacques Dessalines murdered October 17, 1806

Here is a picture In Pont Rouge, Jean-Jacques Dessalines was murdered there on October 17, 1806.

Jean-Jacques Dessalines (born 20 September 1758), the first ruler of independent Haiti under the 1801 constitution, was the leader of Haitian revolution who freed the country from French colonists. He served as an officer in the French Army when they were fighting against the British and Spanish attacks. Later, he became a commander under Toussaint Louverture, in the French army. However, after a betrayal in 1802, Toussaint Louverture was captured. Dessalines at first submitted to the new regime without Louverture, however, in 1803, when Napoleon declared his intention to reintroduce slavery abolished by the 1794 convention, Dessalines and other black and mulatto leaders rose in rebellion and he became the leader of the revolution.

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209th anniversary of the death of Jean-Jacques Dessalines

209th anniversary of the death of Jean-Jacques Dessalines

Here is a picture taken at the 209th anniversary of the death of Jean-Jacques Dessalines.

On October 17, 2015, President Martelly accompanied by Prime Minister Evans Paul and other members of the Government, visited Pont-Rouge to pay tribute on the day of 209th death anniversary to the Founding Father of the Haitian Nation, the Emperor Jean-Jacques Dessalines. During this occasion in an inaugural ceremony, the President unveiled a plaque of him on a monument at Pont-Rogue. A week before paying this patriotic tribute, the Prime Minister Evans Paul had visited this site at Pont-Rouge to inspect the erection of the monument. Then the Prime Minister had announced that 'Aviation', as the location of the monument at the crossroads is commonly known, will be renamed after Jean-Jacques Dessalines. He had also announced that, as per redevelopment work, the whole area will be refurbished; the neighboring houses on the square will be painted. "October 17" is a national day to pay homage to the father of the nation because he was killed in a revolt on October 17, 1806, in Pont Rouge.

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Martelly, Paul commemorating Jean-Jacques Dessalines

Martelly, Paul commemorating Jean-Jacques Dessalines

Here is a picture of President Michel Martelly and Prime Minister Evans Paul at 209th anniversary of the death of Jean-Jacques Dessalines.

Jean-Jacques Dessalines (20 September 1758 - 17 October 1806) was born in Africa, and was enslaved in the French colony of Saint-Domingue. He was a lieutenant under Toussaint Louverture. After the betrayal and capture of Toussaint Louverture in 1802, Dessalines rose to the power in the army but later he became the leader of the revolution. On 1st of January, 1804, at the dawn of a new age without French colonists or slaves, he renamed 'Saint-Domingue' to 'Haiti' and declared it an independent country, proclaiming himself as the governor-general for life. Later in that year in September, he adopted the title "Jacques 1, Emperor of Haiti". Despite his brutality, he is honored as one of Haiti's founding father.

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Jean Jacques Dessalines, Alexandre Petion in Quito, Ecuador

Jean Jacques Dessalines, Alexandre Petion in Quito, Ecuador

A new "Haiti Plaza" proudly located in the square of the capital capitol city in Quito to honor two of Haitian leaders and the flame of 1804. In May 2015, Ecuador unveiled the statues of Haitian forefathers, Jean Jacques Dessalines who was the first president of Haiti after its independence and Alexandre Pétion considered as the Father of Pan-Americanism, and the statue of a flame with the inscription of "Haiti 1804".

On Wednesday, May 6, 2015, on a new plaza, located on the square of the capital city Quito, Ecuador unveiled two statues of Haitian forefathers, Jean Jacques Dessalines, the first President of Haiti after its independence and Alexandre Pétion, the second President of Haiti and Father of the Pan-Americanism. There was another statue of a flame with the inscription of "Haiti 1804". As their affiliation with ALBA (Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America), Haiti and Ecuador both enjoy pretty good relation. Ecuador is a core member of ALBA, and Haiti is an observer state. Their bilateral relation centers on the immigration policy, as Haitian immigration to Ecuador has increased dramatically. Ecuador is a good contributor of several development and stabilization projects in Haiti. Since Martelly's last visit to Ecuador in July 2012, the two nations have deepened bilateral relations and cooperation in areas such as health, migration, education, air transport, technology and infrastructure.

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Jean-Jacques Dessalines as Emperor Jacques I of Haiti

Jean-Jacques Dessalines as Emperor Jacques I of Haiti

Here is a picture of Jean-Jacques Dessalines after he became Emperor Jacques I of Haiti.

Ruling as governor-general, prior to becoming emperor, Dessalines, who despised the white and mulatto elite population, killed thousands of them in the 1804 Haiti Massacre. The genocide accomplished, he defined Haiti as a 100% black nation, and banned whites from acquiring land or property in Haiti. Dessalines instituted a form of slavery, ordering blacks to work as soldiers to defend against foreign invaders, or labor on plantations to ensure Haiti's economic survival.

Although Dessalines hated the mulatto elite, he appointed some of them as officials and managers in his administration because they were highly-educated. Dessalines ruled for two years before disgruntled members of his administration, Alexandre Petion and Henri Christophe among them, planned a coup d'etat. They assassinated Dessalines on October 17, 1806.

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