Paul Magloire, an army colonel who in 1950 became president of Haiti.
Paul Magloire was born in 1907 in Quartier Morin, the son of a high-ranking military officer in Haiti's army. Magloire was ousted by a coup and replaced by François "Doc" Duvalier.
Rafael Leónidas Trujillo Molina (born on October 24, 1891) was a Dominican politician, soldier and dictator, who ruled the Dominican Republic from February 1930 until his assassination in May 1961. Trujillo was killed by a group of rebels determined to topple his regime. He was Dominican President between 1930-1938 and 1942-1952. In 1937, he ordered the massacre that took more than 35,000 Haitian lives on charges of invading the Dominican Republic. It was launched by the army with common criminals released for these purposes against Haitians living in the Dominican Republic's northwestern frontier and in certain parts of the adjacent Cibao region. It was a shameful and brutal event that harmed his prestige in the entire world. Punishment for the atrocity amounted to an agreement in which a paltry US $525,000 was paid to the Haitian government. Haitian President Élie Lescot put the death toll at 12,168; in 1953, the Haitian historian Jean Price-Mars cited 12,136 deaths and 2,419 injuries. In 1975, Joaquín Balaguer, the Dominican Republic's interim Foreign Minister at the time of the massacre, put the number of dead at 17,000. Other estimates compiled by the Dominican historian Bernardo Vega went as high as 35,000. Before the massacre, Trujillo made his intentions towards the Haitian community clear in a short speech which he delivered on 2 October 1937 at a dance in his honor in Dajabón. He accused Haitians on charges of thefts of cattle, provisions, fruits, etc., and thus they were preventing Dominican people to live a peaceful life.
Trujillo was a man of bad temper, but had many fabricated justifications of such mass genocide. With the crash of world markets and the onset of the Great Depression in 1929, the price of sugar fell drastically, sugar production was cut, and the Haitian worker was no longer in demand in the Dominican Republic. In 1931, Trujillo took power and began to deport Haitians living in the Dominican Republic using discriminatory and inhuman policy to the Haitians. However, when in the 1950s, when the economic situation became reversed, he took a different tone because, by then he had accumulated about 75% of the Dominican sugar mills and had forced many U.S. competitors out of business. To maximize his profit, he turned to the Haitian workers. In 1952, Trujillo and Haiti's President, Paul Magloire, signed a bilateral agreement in which the Dominican Republic bought 16,500 Haitian workers directly from the Haitian government. These migratory Haitian sugar cane cutters were kept in wooden barracks where there was no running water, no electricity, and no bathrooms; the workers were not allowed to leave except to cut sugar cane. Armed guards from the sugar companies kept close watch on them. However, the Haitian government received compensation in selling these men; the money never trickled down into the worker's hands.
Here is a picture of some Soldiers of Haiti Corps of Military engineers as their demand to secure the country.
On September 3, 2015, within the bilateral framework between Haiti and Ecuador, 40 new Haitian soldiers of engineering body were graduated under an eight months training program that started back on January 12, 2015. A Military Engineer is usually responsible for building, maintaining, controlling and sometimes destroying structures and vehicles used for military operations. They remain responsible for maintaining lines of military transport and communications and as one of the oldest form of engineering, it is also regarded as the precursor of the civil engineering discipline. The graduation ceremony was organized at the Training School of Ecuadorian Army soldiers (Escuela de Formación de Soldados del Ejército) at the Champ de Mars located at the northern exit of Ambato, the third city at the south of Ecuadorian capital Quito, in the presence of the Brigadier General, Edison Narváez Rosero, the Commander of the Command of Education and Doctrine of the Army (CEDE). The support of Ecuador to the establishment of a defense force in Haiti was decided during a meeting between the former Haitian President Martelly and his counterpart Rafael Correa while the Haitian President was on an one day official tour in Ecuadorian capital Quito in November 2014.
Here is a famous statement pronounced by the Haitian strong man Guy Philippe as he draws a line in the sand of Deriveau for Jocelerme Privert.
"Polices are not enemies. My enemies are in the National Palace". "The President is a macaque covered with the skin of a tiger. If he thinks he is a tiger, that he comes to Pestel execute his threats".
"If the President decides to attack me, as did before him Aristide and René Préval, do not worry, we will react. I do not ask the population to face them, I have people to do it. If they want to come, let them. But when they come at the level of Deriveau, cut all the roads to prevent them from going back and I'll take care of the rest." - Guy Philippe, May, 2016
Himmler Rebu unsuccessful coup d'etat against Prosper Avril
In april, 1989, Rebels surrendered control of Port-au-Prince's airport. It was later found out that Haiti was once again in a middle of a Coup D'Etat. Lt. Col. Himmler Rebu, commander of the Leopards Battalion, Col. Phillipe Biamby and Col. Leonce Qualo were given safe passage to the United States.
Three army officers who tried to overthrow the country's leader, Lt. Gen. Prosper Avril were arrested but later, they were driven by military escort to the Dominican border on their way to the United States on April 4, 1989. These three officers were Lt. Col. Himmler Rebu (38 years old in 1989), commander of the Leopards Battalion; Col. Phillipe Biamby (36), commander of the presidential guard, and Col. Leonce Qualo (35), an administrative officer at army headquarters. Some loyal soldiers of Lt. Gen. Prosper Avril rescued the Lt. General as he was being driven away to be deported. General Avril's wife, Marie-Ange, and her mother were taken captive during the coup with the general, but were released within an hour. The government freed these three soldiers of the failed coup attempt from prison as it bowed to pressure from the mutinous soldiers who held General Avril's one of the four sons as hostage. These three army officers were associated with Jean-Claude Duvalier before he was deposed in 1986.
Here is a picture of some former military of FADH in the streets of Port-au-Prince in February, 2016.
Haitian army was disbanded by former Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide in 1995, because of their notorious record of toppling Haitian governments since the country's independence two centuries earlier. Ironically, Aristide himself was twice ousted in coups; last and the second time, he was toppled by a US-backed military coup back in 2004. In last November, President Martelly and Prime Minister Evans Paul through a decree, the "Conseil Des Ministres", energized the former army men by taking steps to revive the armed forces. A Defence Minister was named, unit of military engineers was recreated, and some recruits were sent to Ecuador for training. Jean Fednel Lafalaise, a former sergeant in his 60s told Reuters, we need a commander-in-chief and a high command at the head of the military so that we can function normally. Earlier, President Martelly has repeatedly pledged that the army would be revived to protect the border, coastlines and the country's few remaining forests. However, following the election debacle, the ex-military people were seen rallying in support of both the outgoing President Michel Martelly and his hand-picked candidate Jovenel Moïse for the next presidential race. While driving through the capital in convoys, some of them were waving weapons and firing into the air.
Here is a picture where an Ex Haitian soldier became victim during an anti-government demonstrators.
Martelly was due to leave his office within February 7th, but the squabbled politicians of the country failed to complete the recent election process with a runoff and elect a successor for the outgoing President Martelly. Some of the weak opposition leaders are demanding the comeback of former President Aristide as an interim leader as a replacement. We might remember that Aristide disbanded the Haitian army in 1995 in an attempt to end the military dominance over the Haitian politicians, because it had records of toppling governments since the Haitian independence two centuries earlier. Aristide was twice ousted in coups; lastly he was toppled by a US-backed military coup back in 2004. The politicians are also discussing several other options like appointing a Supreme Court judge or a new prime minister to run an interim government. Last year, Martelly energized the former army men by taking steps to revive the armed forces and he has repeatedly pledged that it would be revived to protect the border, coastlines and the country's few remaining forests. However, as per the news report, the ex-military people were rallying in support of both the outgoing President Michel Martelly and his hand-picked candidate Jovenel Moïse for the next presidential race. While driving through the capital in convoys, some of them were waving weapons and firing into the air. The victim was carrying a small card bearing the image of ruling-party candidate Jovenel Moise.
Here is a picture Haitian Police Force, also known as Garde D'Haiti which later became FAD'H being trained during US Occupation of Haiti
In spite of the resentment with their occupation, the Americans during their 19 years of occupation built many new roads, schools, irrigation, agricultural projects, piers and many lighthouses. They also trained an important political force, the Haitian National Police force (Garde D'Haiti). However, the great depression of the 1930s forced the U.S to justify its huge spending to occupy an unpromising land like Haiti. In 1930, the U.S President Hoover, sent a delegation to the Haitian President Louis Borno for considering to hold elections and began the process of withdrawing American administrators and forces. The last Marine left Haiti on August 15, 1934 after a formal transfer of authority to the Haitian military Garde d'Haiti. However, a small American delegation remained there till 1941 to defend American economic interests.
Here is a picture of President Sudre Dartiguenave with several Haitian Army Generals.
Interim President Philippe Sudré Dartiguenave. Philippe Dartiguenave, the 27th President of Haiti, was born in Anse-a-Veau. A mulatto, he earned a law degree, and was married to Marie Luce Pierre-Jacques and Lunicia Maignan.
In 1915 the U.S. began its occupation of Haiti after President Jean Guillaume Sam's death, and appointed Dartiguenave as provisional president.
Dartiguenave served in office from August 12, 1915 until May 15, 1922 and died four years later in Anse-a-Veau. President Louis Borno succeeded him.
Grande-Rivière-du-Nord's Rich Heritage as you are looking at
former Haitian military leader Henri Namphy who was born in Grande-Riviere-du-Nord
Grande-Rivière-du-Nord is a repository of historical events, people, and remnants of its past.
Gallifet Sugar Plantation was the site of a Voodoo incantation, leading to the Haiti Slave Rebellion. A few miles away sits military fortress, Citadel Laferriere, which housed battle contingents.
Grande Rivière gave birth to several rulers including Jean-Jacques Dessalines. Pioneering ethnologist, Jean Price Mars, was also born there.
One fact the town can boast of is a significant number of centenarians, one of few places in Haiti where they exist.