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Noirisme movement, a result of the American occupation in Haiti

Noirisme movement, a result of the American occupation in Haiti

In the 1930s, US invaded Haiti and introduced a racist policies carried out by U.S. Marines. An overall preferential but still racist treatment of Haiti's Mulato elite. During and after the American occupation in Haiti, a movement started that turning the intellectual class toward a greater appreciation of blackness, African culture. Francois Duvalier campaigned on this political ideology Noirism or Negritude Movement

"Noirisme Ideology" was defined by Matthew J. Smith (2004) as an ideology "which advocated total control of the state apparatus by black representatives of the popular classes." It is a form of political and cultural ideology that grew out of indigenism (ideologies associated with indigenous peoples), which in turn was a reaction to the American occupation of 1915 to 1934, and until the 1940's when Haiti gained back the control of its national bank. Although "color politics" were an integral part of Haiti's political scenery long before the arrival of the Marines, their presence served to strengthen the problem. During this period of U.S occupation, Haiti put an end to the Franco-German control of the Haitian economy and permanently shifted towards the U.S. However, Smith himself considered this as incomplete definition unless Occupation and post-Occupation scenarios in Haiti are considered and factors like radical, psychological, cultural, ethnological and political ideologies are taken into account.

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The Charming life of the Haitian Elite class

The Charming life of the Haitian Elite class

After the slave revolution, the Haitian Elite or upper class was comprised of Haiti Military class, Haiti's Mulato class and free Blacks. This picture is the lovely wife of Emperor Faustin Soulouque, Adelina who is a member of the Haitian elite class.

Wealthy families could only married into wealthy families. Poor women could only be mistress

The Haitian Elite or upper class is always comprised of Military class, Haiti's Mulato class and free Blacks. An estimate suggests that about 1% of the total population, constitute the Haitian bourgeoisie--an elite group that the world rarely focuses on. They are often related through years of intermarriage and business dealings. They are educated, worldly, multilingual and rich, sometimes exceedingly so (about 300 are millionaires). A few of them are black, some are white, and most of them are mixed who have separated themselves from ordinary black Haitians in every respect. Pétionville's discothèques, casino, and health spas are packed on the weekends with affluent Haitians-- it is where you can witness the disparity of Haiti's wealth. The society is trapped in cycles of poverty, corruption and exploitation. Some of them have prospered mainly in the import-export or textile businesses. One percent of Haitians control 50 percent of the country's economy, and its top 500 taxpayers generate 80% of its tax revenues. In 2013, Haiti had a GDP of $8.199 billion, and 95% of that was roughly in the hands of about 10 families (eleven or twelve extended families in Haiti, many of them linked through marriage over many generations).

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Language, one of the dividing lines within the Haitian society

Language, one of the dividing lines within the Haitian society

French remains the language of the affluent and privileged in Haiti, often used n polite society such as the upscale Supermarkets high above the capital's shanty towns, selling brie and baguettes. Many Haitian parents are often willing to let their children stumble in their coursework just to learn a language that even their teachers barely speak. Creole on the other hand is seen by some as the language of the impoverished masses

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Alexandre Petion and Haiti land reform

Alexandre Petion and Haiti land reform

Alexandre Petion has introduced a land reform following the independence of Haiti that many would agree has cost the country a great deal.

Christophe went to the north and Pétion took the southern Republic of Haiti. One major act by Alexandre Pétion was land redistribution. He seized commercial plantations from the rich and had the land redistributed to his supporters and the peasantry.

In the short term, that earned him lot of respect and appreciation by the beneficiaries. He earned the nickname Papa Bon-C"ur "good-hearted father" as a result.

The land seizures and redistribution ended up reducing the production of commodities for the export economy. As a result, most of the population became subsistence farmers. Exports and state revenue declined sharply.

A look at the present land ownership situation in Haiti would make one think about this original decision

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