Here is the return of Jean Bertrand Aristide from Exile, October 5, 1994 with 20,000 US troops to bolster his new administration.
Aristide, the first democratically elected President with 67% supports, was ousted from power by a September 30, 1991 military coup, because his initiated reforms angered the military and Haiti's elite. When the coup regime collapsed in 1994 under US pressure, following a huge peaceful public demonstration of Aristide supporters (about 250,000 people) in New York, urging the U.S President Bill Clinton to deliver on his election promise to return Aristide to Haiti, the U.S and other international communities, including the UN Security Council, persuaded the military regime to let Aristide return to power. On October 15, 1994, President Aristide returned to Haiti to complete his term in President's office.
These pictures show Jean Bertrand Aristide arriving at Bangui M'Poko International Airport which is an international airport located northwest of Bangui, the capital of the Central African Republic, following his second exile from Haiti.
The second set shows Jean Bertrand Aristis, his wife Mildred Aristide and their two children Christine and Michaelle Aristide arriving in South Africa where he would be allowed to live in exile until he can safely return to Haiti.
For the second coup D'Etat given to Jean Bertrand Aristide, not so much as individuals but rather countries are accused. On February 29, 2004, the US, France and Canada are accused to be the masters behind the overthrew of Jean Bertrand Aristide government.
Following several weeks of conflicts, Jean-Bertrand Aristide was ousted in a 2004 Haitian coup d'état in which one of his former soldiers (Guy Philippe) took the leading role. However, Aristide accused the U.S as one of the accomplices for orchestrating the coup d'état against him with support from Jamaican Prime Minister P. J. Patterson and countries like France, Canada and some others. On 25 February, 2004, Guy Philippe and rebel forces surrounded Port-au-Prince and announced plans to arrest Aristide. On 29 February, 2004, Aristide resigned as President and left Haiti with his wife on board a U.S. military plane to the Central African Republic. In an interview on CNN, on March 2, 2004, he said he was told to resign to avoid bloodshed. He later claimed that, his departure was a kidnapping, accusing the U.S. for orchestrating a coup d'état against him.
General Raoul Cédras going into exile.
The coup of Haitian military that ousted Jean Aristide from his rightful office in 1991 was led by Army Lieutenant General Raoul Cedras. Between 30 September 1991 and 15 June 1993, the real political authority in Haiti rested with the military junta headed by Raoul Cédras and Michel François. During this period, the American military officers and civilian officials provided lucrative contracts to several wealthy Haitian families who were behind the coup or backed the three-year military regime. The U.S offered Raoul Cedras a million dollar-plus "golden parachute benefit" plus good compensation for his three houses, to resign and go into exile. However, Raoul delayed his departure for a much better deal. Cédras was a member of the US-trained Leopard Corps; he was chosen by the US and France to be in charge of security for the Haitian general election, 1990-1991 and he subsequently became Commander-in-Chief of the army of Jean-Bertrand Aristide. He was also one important source for the CIA, providing reports critical of President Aristide. With United States intervention, Gen Raoul Cedras agreed to resign on 10 October 1994, paving the way for Aristide's return. To avoid arrest, Cedras fled to Panama on October 13, 1994.
Here is a picture of Jean Claude Duvalier and Michele Bennett as they are leaving Haiti to go into exile.
Although Jean-Claude Duvalier (Baby Doc), replaced a few older cabinet members with younger men, instituted budgetary and judicial reforms, released press censorship, released some political prisoners, he had ruled the country with a bloody brutality. He was a hedonist who always strives to maximize pleasure. When political repression and a worsening economy set off violent unrest and a series of riots broke out across Haiti, fearing for life, Duvalier fled to France on a temporary asylum on 7 February 1986 in a U.S cargo plane accompanying his family and 17 associates. When France rejected his appeal for political asylum and asked him to find another place of refuge, he found no other country to accept him. On 27 May 1980, Duvalier married Michèle Bennett Pasquet in a record extravagance manner. With his divorce from Michel in 1993, he lost most of his wealth and had to live a modest life in his remaining part of exile. However, he had supporters who founded the François Duvalier Foundation in 2006 and they used to promote the positive aspects of the Duvalier presidency while he was in exile. On 16 January 2011, during the presidential election campaign, Baby Doc came back to Haiti after 25 years of exile. He announced that, his return is not to join politics, but to help to reconstruct the country. He died in his home of a heart attack on October 4, 2014.
Here is a picture of Former Haitian Dictator Jean Claude Duvalier and wife Michele Bennett Duvalier as they are leaving Haiti on their way to their exile in France
Furor Erupts over Duvalier Funeral Plans
A citizens' activist group is against deceased former dictator Jean-Claude Duvalier being honored with a state funeral. They have begun a petition to stop Martelly from following protocol that necessitates a former president be given national honors.
The petitioners find holding a state funeral for Jean-Claude the white washing of ". . . the legacy of Duvalier's regime, and . . . of his father . . . Francois . . . Duvalier before him . . ."
Here is a picture of General Raoul Cedras and his family on October 13, 1994. He is being escorted by US Military troops as he is heading to the airport in Port-au-Prince on his way to exile
Military Leader Raoul Cedras Brutal Rule and Exile
A few months into Aristide's rule, Cedras orchestrated a coup d'etat, which successfully forced Aristide into exile in the U.S. Cedras became Haiti's military leader, abdicating his position as president, which held no interest for him. Parliament then selected Supreme Court Justice Joseph Nerette as interim president to hold the office until elections were organized. The U.S. stalled the elections, Nerette bowed out of office, and Supreme Court Justice Emile Jonassaint replaced him.
The U.S. finally convinced Cedras he needed to leave the country in the interests of stabilizing the government and its people. Aristide returned to power and negotiated with Panamanian President Ernesto Perez Balladares to receive Cedras. Balladares sanctioned Aristide's request so Haitians' lives could be restored to normalcy and the country able to move forward.
Here is the picture of a huge crowd welcoming former Haitian President Jean Bertrand Aristide from Exile in South Africa.
Jean-Bertrand Aristide (61), the former president of Haiti ended his seven years exile in South Africa when he landed on the grounds of Toussaint L'Overture Airport, Port-au-Prince on March 18, 2013. Thousands of his supporters were waiting to welcome him at the airport. His American civil rights and immigration lawyer Ira Kurzban, had earlier announced his plan to return to Haiti. Before his departure from a small airport in Johannesburg, South Africa, Aristide had spoken to about 50 reporters in several languages. The South African Foreign Minister Maite Nkoana-Mashabane accompanied the former President Aristide, his wife, Milfred and two daughters, Christine (14) and Michaela (12) to the airport. His children have passed half of their formative years in exile. Before departing Johannesburg, the former President spoke in Zulu to announce---"the great day has arrived to say goodbye before returning home. Haiti is eagerly waiting as their dreams will be fulfilled on my return. The Haitian people will mark the end of exile and coup d'etats while peacefully we move from social exclusion to social inclusion."