Paul Magloire, an army colonel who in 1950 became president of Haiti.
Paul Magloire was born in 1907 in Quartier Morin, the son of a high-ranking military officer in Haiti's army. Magloire was ousted by a coup and replaced by François "Doc" Duvalier.
Rafael Leónidas Trujillo Molina (born on October 24, 1891) was a Dominican politician, soldier and dictator, who ruled the Dominican Republic from February 1930 until his assassination in May 1961. Trujillo was killed by a group of rebels determined to topple his regime. He was Dominican President between 1930-1938 and 1942-1952. In 1937, he ordered the massacre that took more than 35,000 Haitian lives on charges of invading the Dominican Republic. It was launched by the army with common criminals released for these purposes against Haitians living in the Dominican Republic's northwestern frontier and in certain parts of the adjacent Cibao region. It was a shameful and brutal event that harmed his prestige in the entire world. Punishment for the atrocity amounted to an agreement in which a paltry US $525,000 was paid to the Haitian government. Haitian President Élie Lescot put the death toll at 12,168; in 1953, the Haitian historian Jean Price-Mars cited 12,136 deaths and 2,419 injuries. In 1975, Joaquín Balaguer, the Dominican Republic's interim Foreign Minister at the time of the massacre, put the number of dead at 17,000. Other estimates compiled by the Dominican historian Bernardo Vega went as high as 35,000. Before the massacre, Trujillo made his intentions towards the Haitian community clear in a short speech which he delivered on 2 October 1937 at a dance in his honor in Dajabón. He accused Haitians on charges of thefts of cattle, provisions, fruits, etc., and thus they were preventing Dominican people to live a peaceful life.
Trujillo was a man of bad temper, but had many fabricated justifications of such mass genocide. With the crash of world markets and the onset of the Great Depression in 1929, the price of sugar fell drastically, sugar production was cut, and the Haitian worker was no longer in demand in the Dominican Republic. In 1931, Trujillo took power and began to deport Haitians living in the Dominican Republic using discriminatory and inhuman policy to the Haitians. However, when in the 1950s, when the economic situation became reversed, he took a different tone because, by then he had accumulated about 75% of the Dominican sugar mills and had forced many U.S. competitors out of business. To maximize his profit, he turned to the Haitian workers. In 1952, Trujillo and Haiti's President, Paul Magloire, signed a bilateral agreement in which the Dominican Republic bought 16,500 Haitian workers directly from the Haitian government. These migratory Haitian sugar cane cutters were kept in wooden barracks where there was no running water, no electricity, and no bathrooms; the workers were not allowed to leave except to cut sugar cane. Armed guards from the sugar companies kept close watch on them. However, the Haitian government received compensation in selling these men; the money never trickled down into the worker's hands.
Luckner James Cambronne, born Arcahaie, Haiti 1929, former leader of the dreaded Tonton Macoute militiamen. He was the second most feared man in Haiti during the dictatorship of François "Papa Doc" Duvalier.
Luckner James Cambronne was widely known as "The Vampire of the Caribbean" for his business of transporting Haitian blood and cadavers to US Hospitals, Medical schools and other foreign hospitals for huge profit.
Luckner Cambronne (30 October 1930 - 24 September 2006) was a high profile Haitian politician who rose to the number two position in power during François Duvalier's regime in Haiti. Luckner, the son of a poor preacher had a career as a bank teller, but his alliance with François Duvalier brought him to the powerful political arena where he started out his political career as a messenger for Duvalier, and to finally become second in command and head of his fearsome private militia popularly known as the Tonton Macoutes throughout the 1960's and the beginning of the 1970's. Duvalier created the militia because he felt threatened by the Haitian army. During their reign of terror, the group slaughtered more than 600,000 Haitians.
Luckner's unique brand of cruelty enabled him to become very rich and earned him the nickname "Vampire of the Caribbean." He was named 'Vampire' because of his lucrative practice of selling corpses and blood of Haitians to US and other foreign hospitals at a huge profit. His brutality was incomparable. Luckner never hesitated to kill innocent people for the growth of his business. He used to buy Haitian cadavers from the General Hospital in the capital, Port-au-Prince, for 15 gourdes ($3) a piece to sell them to American medical schools. This made many unfortunate mourners to find their loved one's coffins mysteriously empty. In some cases, it was found that the exported bodies were still alive and they were shipped for high value, resulting in huge profits.
Tonton Macoutes" had a cruel practice of frequent random executions; they often stoned and burned people alive. After the death of François Duvalier in 1971, Cambronne was said to oppose Papa Doc's nomination of his 19-year-old son Jean-Claude Duvalier as successor, but Jean-Claude's mother, Simone Duvalier, outmaneuvered Cambronne and insisted on his exile. Lastly, Cambronne moved to Miami, Florida, in 1972 where he died on 24 September 2006.
Here is a picture of Francois Duvalier as he was transferring power to his son Jean Claude Duvalier.
François Duvalier was the President of Haiti from 1957 until his death (22 October 1957 - 21 April 1971). Unlike other Haitian chief executives, he ruled his country using extreme violence (causing nearly 30,000 deaths) and phony elections to hold down any opposition. To consolidate his power, he reduced the size of the army and, with his chief aide, Clément Barbot, organized a private army "the Tontons Macoutes" (Bogeymen). In 1959, when he was stricken by a heart attack, Barbot acted in his stead. However, upon recovery, Duvalier (Papa Doc, because he was trained as a physician) promptly imprisoned his aide Barbot. He took the title of "President for Life" in 1964 and remained in power until he died in 1971. On Duvalier's death, power was transferred to his son 19-year-old Jean-Claude ("Baby Doc") who succeeded him as president and Jean-Claude Duvalier, became the second-generation "President for Life".
The period of the Duvalier in Haiti is filled with history. Here is the picture of Frank Romain. During this historical period, Romain was a very important figure.
Frank Romain was a Colonel in the Haitian Military under Duvalier. He was mayor of Port-au-Prince, Chief of the National Police under Duvalier. He was associated with the Tonton Macoute force that terrorized the Haitian population during the Duvalier reign. He was a suspect to be involved in the massacre at the Church John Bosco, September 11, 1988, which left 12 people dead and 11 wounded
He managed to leave the country under the government of General Avril in December 1988
Here is a picture on Le Nouveliste about the Massacre of April 26, 1986 by Francois Duvalier.
Massacre of April 26, 1986 by Francois Duvalier is also known by the name of "massacre of Fort-Dimanche" or Fort Death. On that date, the soldiers opened fire on a peaceful procession that started from the Sacre Coeur church for Fort Dimanche in commemoration of the events of April 26, 1963. Twenty years before, on the same day, Tontons Macoutes, carried out a series of assassination of the families who were alleged opponents to Papa Doc Duvalier, after a failed attempt to kidnap his son Jean-Claude (Baby Doc). On April 26, 1963, over a hundred people were killed and several dozens of people were taken to the Fort-Dimanche prison and later they all disappeared, never came back. Twenty years later, when the crowd assembled in front of Fort Dimanche, the army fired upon them. As per collective memory, number of victims was 'fifteen' and according to Human Rights Watch Report, the number was 'eight'.
Here is a picture of Francois Duvalier and Haile Selassie Emperor of Ethiopia.
Haile Selassie I (23 July 1892-- 27 August 1975), a member of the Solomonic dynasty was the Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974. He was also known as the King of Kings. He served as the Chairperson of the Organisation of African Unity. His internationalist view helped Ethiopia to become a charter member of the United Nations. He helped to promote multilateralism and collective security and in 1936, at the League of Nation, he condemned the use of chemical weapons by Italy against Ethiopia. His millions of supporters of Rastafari movement (an Abrahamic belief) used to worship him as the returned messiah of the Bible. This King of Kings met the President for Life, when he visited Haiti in April 1966. He was the only foreign Head of State to visit Haiti during the rule of Francois Duvalier (Papa Doc). Like Haile Selassie, President Duvalier was also a patron of the Black Nationalist platform, and a supporter of the Pan-African model of excellence.
Here is a picture of Mr. Grey Pierson he was he was visiting Tortuga Island in 1972.
In 1968, François "Papa Doc" Duvalier needed a radio ship that could transmit his propaganda across the Caribbean and to Latin America. It was then he came into the contact of Don Pierson, a Cadillac dealer from Eastland who had two abandoned radio ships, but both were moored across the Atlantic off the coast of south-east England. Pierson struck a deal of $70 million for the ships and 'Papa Doc' though could not afford to pay the amount, leased Tortuga Island instead in 1972 on condition of equal sharing joint venture between the Haitian government and "Dupont Caribbean Inc". When in July, 2014, the Miami based Carnival Corporation announced its investment plan for US $ 700 million with the Haitian government for constructing a cruise port in the Tortuga island and transform that into a tourist Mecca, nobody was aware that one Texan named Pierson has inherited the absolute right on the island from his father on a 99 year lease contract, dated April 5, 1971. However, subsequent to that date, the Haitian government absolved itself from entire financial and all other responsibilities and granted 99 years exclusive leasehold right and full commercial authority to the Pierson 's corporation as then the Island of Tortuga was a barren place without any road, electricity or public utility services. Pierson's 'Dupont Caribbean Inc' immediately started investment and promotion activities to improve the image of Tortuga Island. As of the agreement "Dupont Caribbean Inc" was given all authority to issue licenses on trading at Tortuga and it has still remained effective.
The Haitian Government has decided to dedicate a National Day of Remembrance for the victims of Fort Dimanche.
Fort Dimanche's Unsavory Past Remembered
The Ministry of Communication announced April 26th 2015 as a National Day of Remembrance for the victims incarcerated at Fort Dimanche.
Fort Dimanche, a brutal prison, where inmates were subject to claustrophobic conditions, tortured, sexually assaulted, and other wise dehumanized, was used during Francois Duvalier's regime for any Haitian, who dared to criticize his policies.
The prison served as a place for political dissenters for over 30 years. In 1987 it was turned into a memorial.
Here is a picture of Francois Duvalier with several officers of his Military force
Throughout the world Duvalier was considered to be a repressive ruler, so much so that no other head of state would take the chance of being considered in league with his behavior. Thus, the example set by Emperor Haile Selassie I was not just unprecedented, but was never followed. President Duvalier took the opportunity of this most important visit, made even more special because of its uniqueness as well as the message and might of the visitor, to document for history, through many pictures featuring him and the Ethiopian ruler, his favor. During the visit, Selassie gave the Great Necklace of the Order of the Queen of Saba to Duvalier, after receiving from the Haitian ruler the Necklace of the Order of Jean-Jacques Dessalines the Great.
Here is a picture of Haitian Dictator Francois Duvalier with Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia as he briefly visited Haiti in 1966
The King of Kings met the President for Life when he traveled to Haiti in 1966, becoming the only head of state to visit Haiti during the presidency of Francois Duvalier. President Duvalier, being a proponent of the black nationalist platform, was a supporter of the Pan-African model of excellence, and welcomed the Emperor of Ethiopia, Haile Selassie I with open arms.
During his own rule, Duvalier became almost as popular as Emperor Selassie through his forceful might held by the use of fear and murder. His family became ridiculously wealthy through the country's coffers, as Duvalier explicitly appropriated state money, much of which came from aid funds given by other countries, into his personal accounts, all this while the population was impoverished. Because of his notorious reputation, Duvalier was forced to be under heavy guard consisting of 600 officers in the palace guard, 350 soldiers in the Dessalines Barracks next door, thousands of militiamen and the fearsome Tontons Macoutes.