haitian military force
Here is a picture of General Paul Magloire being decorated by Haitian President Dumarsais Estimé
Magloire was from the rising, black middle-class in Haiti. "Kanson Fé" or "Iron Pants"), as he was known, Magloire overthrew the disastrous regime of President Elie Lescot in 1946. He later allowed the election of a liberal black president, Dumarsais Estimé. When President Dumarsais Estimé, tried to extend his term of office in 1950, with the help of a local elite, Magloire ousted him and took power.
Himmler Rebu unsuccessful coup d'etat against Prosper Avril
In april, 1989, Rebels surrendered control of Port-au-Prince's airport. It was later found out that Haiti was once again in a middle of a Coup D'Etat. Lt. Col. Himmler Rebu, commander of the Leopards Battalion, Col. Phillipe Biamby and Col. Leonce Qualo were given safe passage to the United States.
Three army officers who tried to overthrow the country's leader, Lt. Gen. Prosper Avril were arrested but later, they were driven by military escort to the Dominican border on their way to the United States on April 4, 1989. These three officers were Lt. Col. Himmler Rebu (38 years old in 1989), commander of the Leopards Battalion; Col. Phillipe Biamby (36), commander of the presidential guard, and Col. Leonce Qualo (35), an administrative officer at army headquarters. Some loyal soldiers of Lt. Gen. Prosper Avril rescued the Lt. General as he was being driven away to be deported. General Avril's wife, Marie-Ange, and her mother were taken captive during the coup with the general, but were released within an hour. The government freed these three soldiers of the failed coup attempt from prison as it bowed to pressure from the mutinous soldiers who held General Avril's one of the four sons as hostage. These three army officers were associated with Jean-Claude Duvalier before he was deposed in 1986.
Here is a picture of Guy Philippe celebrating after he led the 2004 coup d'état against Jean-Bertrand Aristide.
Guy Philippe (February 29, 1968) is a Haitian politician, former Tonton Macoutes leader and a presidential candidate (Front for National Reconstruction, a guerrilla group) in the Haitian General Election, 2006 who led the 2004 Haitian coup d'état that ousted Jean-Bertrand Aristide. Philippe was a former Haitian Police Chief, trained by U.S Special Forces in Ecuador in the early 1990s and he was once wanted by the United States for smuggling cocaine. In the year 2000, he was accused of masterminding a coup and was subsequently removed from his post as police chief of Cap-Haïtien and Philippe fled to the Dominican Republic. In February 2004, he returned from the DR, met former militia leader Louis-Jodel Chamblain to join the 2004 Haitian coup d'état against president Jean-Bertrand Aristide.
Here is a picture of Corp des Leopard In Haiti, Haiti Military.
During the rule of Jean-Claude Duvalier (Baby Doc) the Leopard Corps In Haiti was created in 1971 with United States' assistance as a "counter-insurgency" force to provide support with a relatively modern tool for responding to country's internal threats and to balance two powers between the Haitian Armed Forces and the Tonton Macoutes (became the Volontaires de la Securite Nationale or VSN after 1962 with around 9,000 members). However, the Leopards were described by human rights investigators as "particularly brutal in dealing with civilians" (its activities were often suppressed). Some of Haiti's subsequent paramilitary leaders got their start in the Leopard's camouflage outfit. James Byers, the CEO of Miami based Aerotrade who was in charge to train the leopards, had later admitted before camera in mid 1980's, that Aerotrade did this under CIA contract. The force, consisting 700 members, was Duvalier's a personal security force where the participating members required a higher education level to join. 'Corps des Léopards' was disbanded within a month of an attempted coup in 1989.
Here is a picture of some former military of FADH in the streets of Port-au-Prince in February, 2016.
Haitian army was disbanded by former Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide in 1995, because of their notorious record of toppling Haitian governments since the country's independence two centuries earlier. Ironically, Aristide himself was twice ousted in coups; last and the second time, he was toppled by a US-backed military coup back in 2004. In last November, President Martelly and Prime Minister Evans Paul through a decree, the "Conseil Des Ministres", energized the former army men by taking steps to revive the armed forces. A Defence Minister was named, unit of military engineers was recreated, and some recruits were sent to Ecuador for training. Jean Fednel Lafalaise, a former sergeant in his 60s told Reuters, we need a commander-in-chief and a high command at the head of the military so that we can function normally. Earlier, President Martelly has repeatedly pledged that the army would be revived to protect the border, coastlines and the country's few remaining forests. However, following the election debacle, the ex-military people were seen rallying in support of both the outgoing President Michel Martelly and his hand-picked candidate Jovenel Moïse for the next presidential race. While driving through the capital in convoys, some of them were waving weapons and firing into the air.
Here is a picture where an Ex Haitian soldier became victim during an anti-government demonstrators.
Martelly was due to leave his office within February 7th, but the squabbled politicians of the country failed to complete the recent election process with a runoff and elect a successor for the outgoing President Martelly. Some of the weak opposition leaders are demanding the comeback of former President Aristide as an interim leader as a replacement. We might remember that Aristide disbanded the Haitian army in 1995 in an attempt to end the military dominance over the Haitian politicians, because it had records of toppling governments since the Haitian independence two centuries earlier. Aristide was twice ousted in coups; lastly he was toppled by a US-backed military coup back in 2004. The politicians are also discussing several other options like appointing a Supreme Court judge or a new prime minister to run an interim government. Last year, Martelly energized the former army men by taking steps to revive the armed forces and he has repeatedly pledged that it would be revived to protect the border, coastlines and the country's few remaining forests. However, as per the news report, the ex-military people were rallying in support of both the outgoing President Michel Martelly and his hand-picked candidate Jovenel Moïse for the next presidential race. While driving through the capital in convoys, some of them were waving weapons and firing into the air. The victim was carrying a small card bearing the image of ruling-party candidate Jovenel Moise.
Here is a picture of President Sudre Dartiguenave with several Haitian Army Generals.
Interim President Philippe Sudré Dartiguenave. Philippe Dartiguenave, the 27th President of Haiti, was born in Anse-a-Veau. A mulatto, he earned a law degree, and was married to Marie Luce Pierre-Jacques and Lunicia Maignan.
In 1915 the U.S. began its occupation of Haiti after President Jean Guillaume Sam's death, and appointed Dartiguenave as provisional president.
Dartiguenave served in office from August 12, 1915 until May 15, 1922 and died four years later in Anse-a-Veau. President Louis Borno succeeded him.
Here is a picture of Mr. Williams Régala, a former member of Haiti's National Council of Government. He participated in the council of February 1986. During the dictatorship of Jean-Claude Duvalier, he was the head of the secret service. Williams Régala was also Minister of Defense during the short lived government of Leslie Manigat. He also occupied the position of Interior Minister under the National Council.
"Operation Uphold Democracy" was an intervention authorized by the UN Security Council to restore democracy by removing a military regime that overthrew the fairly elected government of Jean-Bertrand Aristide in Haiti, on 30 September, 1991. Under the leadership of Lieutenant General Raoul Cedras, a military coup overthrew President Aristide, a charismatic Roman Catholic priest and the popularly elected president in the Haitian history who won 67% of the vote in a presidential election. The Operation Uphold Democracy involved a peacekeeping force of around 20,000 armed personnel from all five branches of the U.S armed forces, 5,000 Non-U.S forces and assistance of 24 nations. It had a mission to restore a legitimate government and a secure environment for the people in Haiti. The operation successfully assisted the exiled President to return and remain in power till the transitioning of power to the newly elected President Rene Preval on February 7, 1996. Operation Uphold Democracy officially ended with its replacement with the United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) on March 31 1995.