francois duvalier reign
Luckner James Cambronne, born Arcahaie, Haiti 1929, former leader of the dreaded Tonton Macoute militiamen. He was the second most feared man in Haiti during the dictatorship of François "Papa Doc" Duvalier.
Luckner James Cambronne was widely known as "The Vampire of the Caribbean" for his business of transporting Haitian blood and cadavers to US Hospitals, Medical schools and other foreign hospitals for huge profit.
Here is a picture of Francois Duvalier as he was transferring power to his son Jean Claude Duvalier.
François Duvalier was the President of Haiti from 1957 until his death (22 October 1957 - 21 April 1971). Unlike other Haitian chief executives, he ruled his country using extreme violence (causing nearly 30,000 deaths) and phony elections to hold down any opposition. To consolidate his power, he reduced the size of the army and, with his chief aide, Clément Barbot, organized a private army "the Tontons Macoutes" (Bogeymen). In 1959, when he was stricken by a heart attack, Barbot acted in his stead. However, upon recovery, Duvalier (Papa Doc, because he was trained as a physician) promptly imprisoned his aide Barbot. He took the title of "President for Life" in 1964 and remained in power until he died in 1971. On Duvalier's death, power was transferred to his son 19-year-old Jean-Claude ("Baby Doc") who succeeded him as president and Jean-Claude Duvalier, became the second-generation "President for Life".
Here is a picture on Le Nouveliste about the Massacre of April 26, 1986 by Francois Duvalier.
Massacre of April 26, 1986 by Francois Duvalier is also known by the name of "massacre of Fort-Dimanche" or Fort Death. On that date, the soldiers opened fire on a peaceful procession that started from the Sacre Coeur church for Fort Dimanche in commemoration of the events of April 26, 1963. Twenty years before, on the same day, Tontons Macoutes, carried out a series of assassination of the families who were alleged opponents to Papa Doc Duvalier, after a failed attempt to kidnap his son Jean-Claude (Baby Doc). On April 26, 1963, over a hundred people were killed and several dozens of people were taken to the Fort-Dimanche prison and later they all disappeared, never came back. Twenty years later, when the crowd assembled in front of Fort Dimanche, the army fired upon them. As per collective memory, number of victims was 'fifteen' and according to Human Rights Watch Report, the number was 'eight'.
Let me make this clear. neither Francois Duvalier nor his son Jean Claude Duvalier created the new Haitian flag.
In 1964, the Haitian Dictator Francois "Papa Doc" decided to abandon the Red and Blue flag that has been adopted by haitians for over a century and return to the black and red colors. which was flown for the first time by Jean Jacques Dessalines, the founding father of the nation.
From 1964 to 1986 the Black and Red flag was the official flag of the nation. It would not change until the end of the Duvalier reign, when Jean Claude Duvalier went into exile in France. At that point, it was restored to red and blue.
Throughout the history of the Haitian flag, whether the colors are red, blue or black, it has remained a symbol of pride for many Haitians. Some would make you believe that the flag is deeply rooted in the Vodun religion and Jean Jacques Dessalines was in a temple of the religion in Merote, Haiti when he created the flag. Following the death of Dessalines, the country was divided with Henri Christopne in the North, holding on to the Black and Rd, while Petion in the South, red and Blue flag
Here is a pictur of a public poster about Francois Duvalier. He was elected in1956 on a Black nationalist platform which was a populist movement at the time. Francois Duvalier wan over Louis Dejoie, a mulato and Daniel Fignole, a Black proletarian
- He ruled with fear and intimidation. He used his Tonto macoutes or Volontaire de la Securite Nationale to remain in power