Duvalier - Francois and Jean-Claude
Luckner James Cambronne, born Arcahaie, Haiti 1929, former leader of the dreaded Tonton Macoute militiamen. He was the second most feared man in Haiti during the dictatorship of François "Papa Doc" Duvalier.
Luckner James Cambronne was widely known as "The Vampire of the Caribbean" for his business of transporting Haitian blood and cadavers to US Hospitals, Medical schools and other foreign hospitals for huge profit.
Luckner Cambronne (30 October 1930 - 24 September 2006) was a high profile Haitian politician who rose to the number two position in power during François Duvalier's regime in Haiti. Luckner, the son of a poor preacher had a career as a bank teller, but his alliance with François Duvalier brought him to the powerful political arena where he started out his political career as a messenger for Duvalier, and to finally become second in command and head of his fearsome private militia popularly known as the Tonton Macoutes throughout the 1960's and the beginning of the 1970's. Duvalier created the militia because he felt threatened by the Haitian army. During their reign of terror, the group slaughtered more than 600,000 Haitians.
Luckner's unique brand of cruelty enabled him to become very rich and earned him the nickname "Vampire of the Caribbean." He was named 'Vampire' because of his lucrative practice of selling corpses and blood of Haitians to US and other foreign hospitals at a huge profit. His brutality was incomparable. Luckner never hesitated to kill innocent people for the growth of his business. He used to buy Haitian cadavers from the General Hospital in the capital, Port-au-Prince, for 15 gourdes ($3) a piece to sell them to American medical schools. This made many unfortunate mourners to find their loved one's coffins mysteriously empty. In some cases, it was found that the exported bodies were still alive and they were shipped for high value, resulting in huge profits.
Tonton Macoutes" had a cruel practice of frequent random executions; they often stoned and burned people alive. After the death of François Duvalier in 1971, Cambronne was said to oppose Papa Doc's nomination of his 19-year-old son Jean-Claude Duvalier as successor, but Jean-Claude's mother, Simone Duvalier, outmaneuvered Cambronne and insisted on his exile. Lastly, Cambronne moved to Miami, Florida, in 1972 where he died on 24 September 2006.
Here is a picture of a supporter of Jean Claude Duvalier during his funeral on Saturday, October 11, 2014. many of the supporters of the regime were really affected by the death of their leader.
Hundreds attended the funeral of former dictator Jean-Claude "Baby Doc" Duvalier on Saturday at Saint-Louis de Gonzague school in the Delmas district of Port-au-Prince
. Some people from the elite class as well as former associates of Duvalier's regime arrived in luxury SUVs to pay respect to their leader.
President Michel Martelly did not attend the funeral, however som high officials from his government did. We did see the presence of Former President Boniface Alexandre.
Di anyone see Prosper Avril at the funeral?
Mezanmi, gade coman yon sipote Divalye ap rele. Anpil moun te afekte par lanmo sa.
Here is a picture of Francois Duvalier as he was transferring power to his son Jean Claude Duvalier.
François Duvalier was the President of Haiti from 1957 until his death (22 October 1957 - 21 April 1971). Unlike other Haitian chief executives, he ruled his country using extreme violence (causing nearly 30,000 deaths) and phony elections to hold down any opposition. To consolidate his power, he reduced the size of the army and, with his chief aide, Clément Barbot, organized a private army "the Tontons Macoutes" (Bogeymen). In 1959, when he was stricken by a heart attack, Barbot acted in his stead. However, upon recovery, Duvalier (Papa Doc, because he was trained as a physician) promptly imprisoned his aide Barbot. He took the title of "President for Life" in 1964 and remained in power until he died in 1971. On Duvalier's death, power was transferred to his son 19-year-old Jean-Claude ("Baby Doc") who succeeded him as president and Jean-Claude Duvalier, became the second-generation "President for Life".
The period of the Duvalier in Haiti is filled with history. Here is the picture of Frank Romain. During this historical period, Romain was a very important figure.
Frank Romain was a Colonel in the Haitian Military under Duvalier. He was mayor of Port-au-Prince, Chief of the National Police under Duvalier. He was associated with the Tonton Macoute force that terrorized the Haitian population during the Duvalier reign. He was a suspect to be involved in the massacre at the Church John Bosco, September 11, 1988, which left 12 people dead and 11 wounded
He managed to leave the country under the government of General Avril in December 1988
Here is a picture of Jean Claude Duvalier and Michele Bennett as they are leaving Haiti to go into exile.
Although Jean-Claude Duvalier (Baby Doc), replaced a few older cabinet members with younger men, instituted budgetary and judicial reforms, released press censorship, released some political prisoners, he had ruled the country with a bloody brutality. He was a hedonist who always strives to maximize pleasure. When political repression and a worsening economy set off violent unrest and a series of riots broke out across Haiti, fearing for life, Duvalier fled to France on a temporary asylum on 7 February 1986 in a U.S cargo plane accompanying his family and 17 associates. When France rejected his appeal for political asylum and asked him to find another place of refuge, he found no other country to accept him. On 27 May 1980, Duvalier married Michèle Bennett Pasquet in a record extravagance manner. With his divorce from Michel in 1993, he lost most of his wealth and had to live a modest life in his remaining part of exile. However, he had supporters who founded the François Duvalier Foundation in 2006 and they used to promote the positive aspects of the Duvalier presidency while he was in exile. On 16 January 2011, during the presidential election campaign, Baby Doc came back to Haiti after 25 years of exile. He announced that, his return is not to join politics, but to help to reconstruct the country. He died in his home of a heart attack on October 4, 2014.
Here is a picture of Former Haitian Dictator Jean Claude Duvalier and wife Michele Bennett Duvalier as they are leaving Haiti on their way to their exile in France
Furor Erupts over Duvalier Funeral Plans
A citizens' activist group is against deceased former dictator Jean-Claude Duvalier being honored with a state funeral. They have begun a petition to stop Martelly from following protocol that necessitates a former president be given national honors.
The petitioners find holding a state funeral for Jean-Claude the white washing of ". . . the legacy of Duvalier's regime, and . . . of his father . . . Francois . . . Duvalier before him . . ."
Here is a picture of Anya Duvalier, Daughter of former Haiti Dictator Jean Claude Duvalier at his funeral on October 11, 2014
Friends and family of the late Dictator Jean-Claude "Baby Doc" Duvalier were present at the funeral ceremony in Port-au-Prince, Haiti.
Former Haitian dictator Jean-Claude 'Baby Doc' Duvalier was self-proclaimed president for life in Haiti. He ruled the country with brutality and corruption for 15 years before went on into exile in France after a popular revolt
The Haitian Government has decided to dedicate a National Day of Remembrance for the victims of Fort Dimanche.
Fort Dimanche's Unsavory Past Remembered
The Ministry of Communication announced April 26th 2015 as a National Day of Remembrance for the victims incarcerated at Fort Dimanche.
Fort Dimanche, a brutal prison, where inmates were subject to claustrophobic conditions, tortured, sexually assaulted, and other wise dehumanized, was used during Francois Duvalier's regime for any Haitian, who dared to criticize his policies.
The prison served as a place for political dissenters for over 30 years. In 1987 it was turned into a memorial.