Paul Eugène Magloire visit to the United States in January, 1955

Paul Eugène Magloire visit to the United States in January, 1955

Here is a picture of Haitian president Paul Eugène Magloire on the far left and American President, Dwight D. Eisenhower on the far right with their respective wives in Washington, D.C., United States,1955.

During his visit to the United States paid a visit to Fisk University in Nashville. He received an Honorary Doctor of Laws Degree by the president of the University, Charles S. Johnson

On February 22, 1954 - President Paul Magloire appeared on the Cover of Time Magazine, the world's largest circulation for a weekly news magazine.

Many consider Magloire's period as Haiti's golden age - during his rule, tourism reached at its peak and Haitian coffee exports flourished with high prices. He refurbished towns and built roads, public square, a cathedral, the country's first major dam and other infrastructure projects and cultivated good relations with the Dominican Republic and instituted a Five Year Plan in 1951 to boost agricultural productions. Attempts were made to invite foreign investments and implement economic and social planning. Women were given voting power and direct popular election of the president was introduced.

During his rule Haiti became a favorite tourist spot for American and European tourists. His anti-communist position also gained favorable reception from the US government. Magloire banned the Marxist Popular Socialist Party (PSP) and Peasant Worker Movement Party (MOP) in December 1950. In 1954, as part of the 150th anniversary of Haiti's independence and the major urban and rural infrastructure projects undertaken on that occasion and also because of Haiti's economic recovery, Paul Magloire was honored by Time Magazine. On February 22, 1954 - President Paul Magloire appeared on the Cover of Time Magazine. A year later he was honored at the White House. Magloire's official visit to the United States was between January 26 and February 6, 1955. He was on a nine-day official visit to Washington and New York. After that he made an unofficial six-day visit to Nashville, Chicago and Boston. President Magloire and Mrs. Magloire and their entourage were received by the vice president Nixon at Andrews Air Force Base. Nixon was also President of the Senate and Speaker of the House of Deputies.

For his significant achievement and as Head of State, he received a warm welcome and honor on January 31, 1955, with a ticker-tape parade in New York from the Battery to City Hall. The first of such parade was held on the opening ceremony of the Statue of Liberty on October 28, 1886. President Magloire's official accommodation was provided at the Lincoln's Bedroom, White House. President Eisenhower and Mrs. Eisenhower welcomed President Magloire and Mrs Yolette Leconte Magloire.

Magloire addressed at the 84th joint session of Congress where he praised President Eisenhower's civil rights record. He was the third Negro to address a joint session (Liberian President Edwin Barclay in 1943, Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie in 1954). He also praised President Eisenhower's effort to eliminate all sorts of misunderstanding which is a common objective for the countries in the western hemisphere. A state dinner was followed by official address to the United States Congress.

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The production of Sisal in Haiti

The production of Sisal in Haiti

Here is a picture of a Sisal Plant Factory in Port-au-Prince, Haiti in 1950.This sisal plan was built to produce fiber for the United States, Department of Defense Sisal is used for a variety of materials such as furniture, construction, cars, plastics and paper products.

Sisal is a stiffer fiber stripped from the leaves of the Mexican agave plant which is spun into a yarn-like material. The sisal fiber is traditionally used for rope and twine, but has many other uses like paper, cloth, footwear, hats, bags, carpets, and dart boards. Its strongest natural fibers make it incredibly durable. Sisal rugs are the best fit for high-traffic areas in the home because of its strength, durability, ability to stretch, affinity for certain dyestuffs, and resistance to deterioration in saltwater in places like hallways and entryways. Sisal is also used in low-cost and specialty paper, mattresses, wire rope cores, filters, buffing cloth, geotextiles carpets, handicrafts, and Macramé. Sisal's natural creamy white hue can be dyed any color to suit your interior design scheme. The fibers from the leaves can be used in their coarse, raw state which is more inflexible or can be blended with other fibers, such as wool, to produce a softer material.

Agave Sisalana is a succulent plant closely related to the plant which brings us tequila. Since sisal is an agave, it can be distilled to make a tequila-like liquor. A sweetener is often extracted from its agave nectar (also called agave syrup) and used as an alternative to sugar in cooking. It grows in dry, desert climates such as the plains of Mexico and other parts of the New World. Dedicated sisal farms have been established, especially in Africa and Brazil. Sisal was used by the Aztecs and the Mayans to make crude fabrics and paper.

The plant is quite hardy and can grow year round in hot climates and even in arid or dry regions that are typically unsuitable for other crops. Its growth depends on the level of rainfall, the altitude, and the location. Its production cycle can be up to 12 years during which it can produce up to a total of 180 to 240 leaves for its growth and crop for this fiber can grow up to four tonnes per hectare. It can grow to upwards of 15 feet in height and can have numerous plants and baby plants linked with it. Sisal has been considered as an environmentally friendly strengthening agent to replace asbestos and fibreglass in composite materials in various uses including the automobile industry.

Haiti is one of the poorest countries in the Western Hemisphere where only 11.3% of the land is well suited for agriculture, where 14% people are unemployed and about 60% people live below the poverty line, the production of Sisal can play an important role in its economy. It could be a good means to generate income and bring the unemployed out of frustration.

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Paul E. Magloire addresses joint session of congress with Richard Nixon

Paul E. Magloire addresses joint session of congress with Richard Nixon

Haitian President Paul E. Magloire addresses a joint session of U.S. congress in 1955. He is being supported by U.S. Vice President Richard Nixon and House Speaker.

In January 1955, Haitian President Paul Eugene Magloire was invited to the United States for an official visit and stayed at the White House with the President and Mrs. Eisenhower. He received a warm welcome and was given a ticker-tape parade, possibly due to his anti-communist stand. On January 25, 1955, Paul E. Magloire addressed at the 84th joint session of Congress where he praised President Eisenhower's civil rights record. He was the third Negro to address a joint session (Liberian President Edwin Barclay in 1943, Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie in 1954). He also praised President Eisenhower's effort to eliminate all sorts of misunderstanding which is a common objective for the countries in the western hemisphere. He visited Washington with Mrs. Magloire on a two week trip as a guest of U.S President. They were welcomed at the airport by Vice President Richard Nixon and State Secretary John Foster Dulles and their wives. Following this trip, the U.S vice president Richard Nixon visited Haiti on March 3, 1955.

During his trip, Nixon had a formal meeting with the Haitian cabinet at the Presidential Palace and a conference where he expressed his concern for a paltry sanction (two million dollars) to Haiti for infrastructural development by International Bank. However, he was hopeful about the negotiation of a loan amount of $7 million by Export-Import Bank for the Artibonite dam and irrigation project (On April 20, 1955, the fund was sanctioned). He remained sincere and attentive all through the conference and admitted the need for a grant-in-aid to rehabilitate the loss caused by Hurricane Hazel in October 1954. During his short trip, Nixon once made a break from Magloire and met a woman with a donkey on the road. He asked the lady through his interpreter what is the name of her donkey? The lady replied, donkey!

There are many unknown facts which if revealed, could open new chapters in history or shed light on the dark side of the characters of great statesmen and politicians. "Walking Through Walls: A Memoir" is such a book written by Philip Smith. Author's father, Lew Philip was the interior designer of the White House. Lew was a psychic healer as well.
Before the visit of Richard Nixon to Haiti, Haitian President Paul Magloire made several phone calls to Philip's father because he needed the guest rooms of his presidential palace freshened up as soon as possible since he was expecting a visit from Nixon to review Haitian troops. However, his over-enthusiastic hospitality could not hide his real motive; it was quite clear to the White House that he wanted to keep the U.S happy because he was wanting to drop a pot of foreign aid on himself, which would never see the light of the day after it landed silently on his Swiss bank account. Next part of the story is truly shocking. When the author's father Lew arrived in Haiti and completed the decoration as was asked for, Mrs. Magloire was very satisfied with his work, but in exchange, she asked her guards to hold Lew at gunpoint and forced him to newly decorate her whole palace before leaving for the U.S. Before Lew, one Italian decorator went missing in Haiti forever. It took Lew about six months to complete the decoration to the most splendid palace imaginable at an astronomical cost and Lew received a single 'glass paperweight with Magloire's portrait' as a price for his service. Lew's family was in complete darkness on his whereabouts in Haiti, his wife, preparing for widowhood, moved from door to door in the U.S. but none cared for a decorator's wife.

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Paul Magloire ("Kanson Fé) being decorated by President Dumarsais Estimé

Paul Magloire (

Here is a picture of General Paul Magloire being decorated by Haitian President Dumarsais Estimé

Magloire was from the rising, black middle-class in Haiti. "Kanson Fé" or "Iron Pants"), as he was known, Magloire overthrew the disastrous regime of President Elie Lescot in 1946. He later allowed the election of a liberal black president, Dumarsais Estimé. When President Dumarsais Estimé, tried to extend his term of office in 1950, with the help of a local elite, Magloire ousted him and took power.

Paul Magloire ("Kanson Fé) being Decorated by President Dumarsais Estimé
Paul Eugène Magloire (July 19, 1907 - July 12, 2001) was a Haitian general's son. He joined the army in 1930 and became Police Chief of Port-au-Prince in 1944. In 1946, he participated in a successful coup against President Élie Lescot. In 1950, while he was serving as an army general, he ousted President Dumarsais Estimé with the help of a local elite and installed himself as ruler.

Before the long dictatorship of the Duvaliers which took the country back again in a period of oppression, his period of rule as president between 1950 and 1956 is marked as a period of unusual peace and efforts at modernization. Many consider Magloire's period as Haiti's golden age - during his era, tourism reached at its peak and Haitian coffee exports drew high prices. He refurbished towns and built roads, a cathedral, public square, the country's first major dam and other infrastructure projects and cultivated good relations with the Dominican Republic. Attempts were made to invite foreign investments and implement economic and social planning. Women were given voting power and direct popular election of the president was introduced.

However, the good days ended in 1954 when Haiti was hit by Hurricane Hazel. The hurricane inflicted heavy damage on the economy, relief funds were stolen, and Magloire's popularity fell. After two years, he was ousted by the military and went into exile in New York. When François Duvalier took the presidency, he stripped Magloire of his Haïtian citizenship. At the end of Duvalier dictatorship in 1986, when Jean-Claude Duvalier (Baby Doc) fled to France, Magloire returned to Haiti. He was an unofficial adviser to Henri Namphy, who briefly ruled Haiti in 1988. It was a mark of appreciation for his past deed to the country.

The mulattos were happy under the reign of Magloire because their shameless privilege and racism received patronage and reached the apogee of their power, and Magloire's tough stand (Kanson Fé) with the mulattos took them to a height of command and enjoyment. He restored the elites to the prominence.

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Mrs. Jamba of Haiti, oldest woman in Human History, is holding strong at 125

Mrs. Jamba of Haiti, oldest woman in Human History, is holding strong at 125

Bénicia Souffrant, better known as "Madan Janba", is the oldest living woman on planet earth in 2018. Madan Janba is 125 years old and lives in the locality of Moyette, 8th communal section of Petit-Goâve.

"Madan Janba" retains her mental capacity. She continues to think logically thinking; she argues and has a strong personality. Mrs. Jamba is unable to see very well. She has some hearing problems and sometimes complains of physical pains.

Officially, the oldest woman in the world is 118 year old Emma Morano who was born on November 29, 1899 in Italy. Due to our record keeping system, we may never be able to prove that Bénicia Souffrant, "Madan Janba", is in fact the oldest living woman on earth in the year 2018

On Friday, March 23, 2018, Jacky Lumarque, Rector of Quisqueya University and former Prime Minister Jacques Edouard Alexis visited Mrs. Jamba, living in the 8th communal section of Petit-Goâve. As per local information, Mrs. Jamba is almost deaf and blind and at 125 years of age, she is the oldest human being living in Haiti now. Her real name is Bénicia Souffrant, but she is better known under the name "Madam Jamba". She has already turned 126 on last June 24th, 2018.

The Rector of Quisqueya University has told the correspondents present on the site that from now on his university will take care of Mrs. Jamba. She will live the rest of her life in her new and comfortable house. The University has hired two local women for her care and support. They will help to maintain her eating and other habits unchanged and provide means for a better life. Lumarque also said that when a person reaches 100 years of age, such person becomes a heritage. He has a friend who is the director of the 'Claire Heureuse' Foundation that looks after the elderly. As per his gathered information, Mrs. Jamba is facing a lack of supervision and needs regular monitoring-- 'Claire Heureuse' will look at that.

One week before this visit, another delegation from Quisqueya University led by Mrs. Judith Auguste, visited Mrs. Jamba. The old lady was quite happy to welcome the group. Deputy Mayor Delor Desgranges who was present at the delegation brought gifts for the lady. While talking to the correspondents present, Mrs. Judith expressed her University's future plan to take care of this lady till her last day. Her condition of health will be assessed by a diagnostic report under the supervision of Lumarque, the Rector of University. As per Lumarque's statement, the objective of this earlier delegation was to explore and initiate the first contacts with Mrs. Jamba.

Presently, the oldest woman living in the world is Emma Morano, a tiny, 116-year-old Italian woman whose authenticity of age has been officially confirmed. If Mrs. Jamba can prove her age officially, she would the oldest living woman on the earth.

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Luckner James Cambronne, head of Haiti Tonton Macoutes militiamen

Luckner James Cambronne, head of Haiti Tonton Macoutes militiamen

Luckner James Cambronne, born Arcahaie, Haiti 1929, former leader of the dreaded Tonton Macoute militiamen. He was the second most feared man in Haiti during the dictatorship of François "Papa Doc" Duvalier.

Luckner James Cambronne was widely known as "The Vampire of the Caribbean" for his business of transporting Haitian blood and cadavers to US Hospitals, Medical schools and other foreign hospitals for huge profit.

Luckner Cambronne (30 October 1930 - 24 September 2006) was a high profile Haitian politician who rose to the number two position in power during François Duvalier's regime in Haiti. Luckner, the son of a poor preacher had a career as a bank teller, but his alliance with François Duvalier brought him to the powerful political arena where he started out his political career as a messenger for Duvalier, and to finally become second in command and head of his fearsome private militia popularly known as the Tonton Macoutes throughout the 1960's and the beginning of the 1970's. Duvalier created the militia because he felt threatened by the Haitian army. During their reign of terror, the group slaughtered more than 600,000 Haitians.

Luckner's unique brand of cruelty enabled him to become very rich and earned him the nickname "Vampire of the Caribbean." He was named 'Vampire' because of his lucrative practice of selling corpses and blood of Haitians to US and other foreign hospitals at a huge profit. His brutality was incomparable. Luckner never hesitated to kill innocent people for the growth of his business. He used to buy Haitian cadavers from the General Hospital in the capital, Port-au-Prince, for 15 gourdes ($3) a piece to sell them to American medical schools. This made many unfortunate mourners to find their loved one's coffins mysteriously empty. In some cases, it was found that the exported bodies were still alive and they were shipped for high value, resulting in huge profits.

Tonton Macoutes" had a cruel practice of frequent random executions; they often stoned and burned people alive. After the death of François Duvalier in 1971, Cambronne was said to oppose Papa Doc's nomination of his 19-year-old son Jean-Claude Duvalier as successor, but Jean-Claude's mother, Simone Duvalier, outmaneuvered Cambronne and insisted on his exile. Lastly, Cambronne moved to Miami, Florida, in 1972 where he died on 24 September 2006.

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Richard Nixon and Pat visit to Paul E. Magloire in Haiti

Richard Nixon and Pat visit to Paul E. Magloire in Haiti

Here is a picture of Vice President Richard Nixon of the United States and his wife Thelma Catherine "Pat" Nixon during a visit to Haiti in 1955. President Paul Magloire was accompanied with his wife, Yolette Leconte Magloire.

When former U.S President Richard Nixon visited Haiti back in 1955 along with his wife Thelma Catherine "Pat" Nixon, he was acting in the capacity of Vice President of U.S and Haiti was under the leadership of ruler Paul Magloire. On March 3, 1955, following the formal presentation of the Cabinet to Vice President Nixon at the Palace, the Vice President attended a conference on the request of Haitian President Magloire. Richard Nixon was accompanied by some dignitaries like Assistant Secretary of State Holland, the American Ambassador, the Haitian Ambassador to the United States and Mr. Robert Newbegin. M. Mauclair Zéphirin, Secretary of State for Foreign Relations, acted as interpreter.

During the conference, Nixon expressed his deep concern because the International Bank had indicated that the maximum loan it could make to Haiti would be in the sum of two million dollars. He also mentioned that before the visit of International Bank representative in Haiti one year ago in 1954, he was very optimistic about the loan amount. He thought that sanctioned amount would be enough to cover the cost of constructing a highway from Port-au-Prince to Aux Cayes at an estimated cost of seven million dollars. He said he is very hopeful on the outcome of the negotiations of a loan from the Export-Import Bank for the Artibonite dam and irrigation project; it is proceeding satisfactorily and expecting a quick announcement (On April 20, 1955, the Export-Import Bank authorized a $7 million additional loan to Haiti for the flood control and irrigation project in the Artibonite River Valley).

Without making any promise, the Vice President remained very attentive in discussion, made some inquiries to clarify statements made by President Magloire, discussed on different dimensions on the program and activities of the FOA in Haiti, appreciated few ongoing Haitian projects such as irrigation projects in the Aux Cayes area, Ambassador Nixon expressed his wish that a grant-in-aid should be provided to assist Haiti in its economic rehabilitation made necessary by the Hurricane Hazel.

Starting with the presidency of Theodore Roosevelt in 1901, 14 different United States presidents have made a total of 36 visits to the Caribbean. Fourteen (14) Caribbean countries have had at least one visit, with the most visited countries being Bermuda with eight (8) visits, the Bahamas with six (6), Trinidad & Tobago with five (5), and Jamaica with four (4) visits. Franklin D. Roosevelt made the most trips (14) either on vacation or while involved with Allied diplomatic interactions during World War II. Of the 13 sovereign countries in the region, four--Dominica, the Dominican Republic, Saint Kitts and Nevis, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines--have not as of yet been visited by an American president. Haiti has been visited by 3 U.S. Presidents so far:

Calvin Coolidge, July 5-6, 1934 Haiti Cap Haitien: Informal visit en route to a vacation in Hawaii
Bill Clinton March 31, 1995: Haiti Port-au-Prince Attended transition ceremony for United Nations Mission in Haiti
Former U.S. Presidents George W. Bush and Bill Clinton's first joint visit to Haiti in 2010 after the earthquake

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Charles Deslondes, a Haitian slave who led the 1811 German Coast Uprising to New Orleans

Charles Deslondes, a Haitian slave who led the 1811 German Coast Uprising to New Orleans

Charles Deslondes was a Haitian slave who led the 1811 German Coast Uprising on January 8 along the Mississippi River. He compiled a group between 200-500 slaves and Maroons and marched from the sugar plantations on the German Coast (Mississippi River) to the City of New Orleans.

The slave, mostly armed with cane knives, burned five plantations, sugar cane mills and crops. Members of the uprising were caught and killed by firing squad or hanging. Their heads were cut off and placed on poles along the river in order to frighten and intimidate the other slaves, this display of heads placed on spikes stretched over 60 miles.

Charles Deslondes was born as a slave in Saint-Domingue, present-day Haiti; he was the son of an enslaved woman and a French planter. Deslondes was one of the slaves who led the 1811 German Coast uprising, a revolt of black slaves in parts of the Territory of Orleans on January 8-10, 1811. It was the largest slave uprising in U.S history that killed only two white men. The rebellion began on a cold, rainy night on January 8, 1811, on or near the plantation of Colonel Manuel André, 36 miles northwest of New Orleans near present-day Norco. The insurgent slaves of Andre, between 64 and 125 from sugar plantation, surrounded his house on the night of January 8; they broke in, assaulted and wounded Colonel André, murdered his son Gilbert (a member of plant militia), and then fled downriver in the direction of New Orleans. The rebels, led by Deslondes, proceeded south, torching and looting adjacent plantations and adding about five hundred recruits to their ranks. They rallied to fight and die for freedom.

Andre, however, managed to escape across the Mississippi and began to round up a posse of nearby planters.
The 1811 German Coast uprising began on the land known as early Louisiana's German Coast (named for immigrants in the 1720s, located above New Orleans on the Mississippi River) where the Germans became independent land-owners. Maroons were the African slaves who escaped from slavery in the Americas and mixed with the indigenous peoples of the Americas and formed independent settlements.

During the uprising, the slaves armed with cane knives burned five plantations, sugarcane mills, and crops. The revolt was well planned-- a fundamental challenge to the system of plantation slavery. The rebels were dressed in military uniforms and chanting "On to New Orleans, they rallied with an attempt to conquer the city, kill all its white inhabitants, and establish a black republic on the shores of the Mississippi. Very soon they met the twin forces of the American military and a hastily assembled planter militia. The slaves' ammunition did not last long, and the battle was brief. Soon the slave defense was broken and plant militia began their slaughter. Immediately about 40 to 45 slaves were killed, 14 slaves were executed and over the following weeks, an additional 44 slaves were killed.

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Little Haiti Business and Cultural District, Flatbush New York

Little Haiti Business and Cultural District, Flatbush New York

Little Haiti of New York, spanning a large portions of Flatbush and Nostrand Avenues, from Parkside Avenue to Avenue H in New York City has been officially designated. This section of Brooklyn where generations after generations of Haitians have landed has been finally designated. We can all say that there is now a Little Haiti In Flatbush and another one in Miami, Florida.

June, 2018: Haitian-Americans gathered in Flatbush street corner to celebrate the creation of "Little Haiti Business and Cultural District.". The area was previously designated "Little Caribbean"

As per news dated June 5, 2018, after years of meetings and planning, the New York City Council announced a ceremonial resolution to name a certain section of Flatbush "Little Haiti." Rodneyse Bichotte, State Senator Kevin Parker, and Councilmember Jumaane Williams, along with local organizations and community members are among the spearheads to designate a part of Flatbush as the Little Haiti Cultural & Business District.

However, according to Rodneyse Bichotte, who is the first Haitian-American to be elected to the State Legislature from New York City, although the Haitian community supports the designation of both 'Little Haiti' and 'Little Caribbean,' "the decision to name Flatbush Avenue 'Little Caribbean' was done without enough community support or involvement."

The proposal generated support mostly from Haitian communities like the Haitian American Caucus, Haitian American Business Network Chamber of Commerce and Haiti Cultural Exchange. Even the move of Bichotte and a host of other elected officials and activists to name "Little Haiti" has been met with criticism and termed as "misguided" and one of "division."

In an email to Bichotte, a host of some elected officials, including Council Member Mathieu Eugene and Rep. Yvette D. Clark, Ernest Skinner, a local community organizer and activist, have asked, "When did Haiti stop being part of the Caribbean? Sowing division may be why Haiti has never been able to reach its full potential."
The designation for "Little Caribbean" was initiated by Flatbush native Shelley Worrell, founder of CaribBEING, a local non-profit cultural institution founded in 1999. CaribBEING celebrates Caribbean heritage in the rapidly gentrifying neighborhood of Flatbush, Brooklyn. She is a longtime supporter of the Little Caribbean and she is trying to preserve and celebrate Caribbean food, culture and small businesses in this area. Shelly bought a shipping container and turned it into a pop-up art space. She transformed every inch of her container with the feel of a breezy, beachside Caribbean aura.

In a statement Bichotte has said that Haiti has had a unique position within the Caribbean -- it is geographically in the Caribbean, but not of the Caribbean. History has created its distinct identity which is why Haitians have had to build separate communities and organizations in order to survive.

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François Nicolas Duvalier Potential Candidate for President of Haiti

François Nicolas Duvalier Potential Candidate for President of Haiti

Wii he be a candidate in the next Haiti Presidential election? Can you imagine having one more Duvalier running the country of Haiti? François Nicolas Duvalier during a visit in Washington DC took the opportunity to meet several key personalities. Many people, including some of his friends, think he will run for President of Haiti in the next Presidential election that is to be taken place in 2022

In December 2013, when the news first came out that Francois Nicolas Duvalier, the son of former Haitian president Jean-Claude Duvalier and grandson of Francois Duvalier, is a possible candidate in the next Haitian election, people were skeptics of its authenticity. Recently during a visit in Washington DC in June 2018, Nicolas Duvalier met several friends and key personalities and expressed his desire to run for the president's office in the 2022 presidential election.

During in his recent trip to the United States, he talked to Voice of America and mentioned his individual vision based on republican values, his love for the country and desire to lead Haiti in a journey on development. He further added that to achieve this, he needs to hold an important responsible office with the power of a president. He believes, it is the best way to lead his countrymen towards prosperity--they have already suffered a lot.

His message has put the Lavalas in a state of panic and they announced that Nicola's candidacy for the 59th president would be nothing but an insult to the whole electoral democracy. However, history is there to judge whether it is correct to judge Nicolas by his ancestors' performance. Time will tell who was more dangerous for the country, the Duvalier dictatorship or Lavalas tyrannies.

After the fall of Duvaliers, during the 20 years of the Lavalas regime (1991 to 2011), their policy of "growth with equity" destroyed everything that Duvalier had left behind and Lavalas pushed the country 50 years back. The Duvaliers were never the only to have a past.

Nicolas was born in Haiti in 1986. When he was three years old, his family took exile in France. He came to Haiti in 2011, two months after the return of his late father. Since his return, he keeps himself busy with social work and agricultural projects. During the reign of Haitian President Michel Martelly, there was once a rumor that Nicholas was an advisor and consultant to President Martelly. He is presently a member of a new political party named "Patrayil". Nicolas has really an enormous task to prove that he has much better intention than his father.

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