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Jack Guy Lafontant resigns as Haiti Prime Minister

Jack Guy Lafontant resigns as Haiti Prime Minister

On Saturday, July 14, Haiti Prime Minister Jack Guy Lafontant declared in the lower house of Haiti's legislature: "I submitted my resignation to the president of the republic", who has "accepted my resignation". With this statement, the Prime Minister had managed to avoid a likely vote of no confidence to stepped down.

Mr. Lafontant took office less than one year and half ago, in February 2017. On Saturday, the Haitian parliament had been debating whether or not to give Lafontant a vote of confidence for more than three hours. With the resignation of the prime minister, Haiti now has no functioning government. President Jovenel Moise will need to dominate a new Prime Minister.

Haitian Prime Minister Jack Guy Lafontant resigned Saturday, on July 7, 2018, amid calls for him to step down over his handling of a failed plan to raise fuel prices. The announcement of the government's plan to raise fuel price set off a wave of deadly protests and took at least 7 lives. Lafontant resigned on second day of violent protests sparked by the now-abandoned plan to raise fuel prices. He submitted his resignation before the call of a no-confidence vote, which had the possibility to lead his removal. The prime minister is the second highest official in Haiti, after the president. While speaking in the lower house of Haiti's legislature on Saturday, he said, "Before coming here, I presented my resignation to the president of the republic."President Moise confirmed via Twitter that he had accepted Lafontant's resignation along with those of other Cabinet members.

Mr. Lafontant, a 57-year-old doctor, was relatively unknown until he was handpicked by President Jovenel Moïse 16 months ago. In this light, chamber president Gary Bodaeu wrote on his Twitter account that the legislature "is at a crossroads in history; it must assume its responsibilities."

Plan to hike the fuel price is a part of the plan to reduce subsidy under an agreement with the government with the IMF for granting a low interest loan amounting to $96 million under "Staff-Monitored Program (SMP). The opposition MPs in Congress warned that if the price increases were reinstated there would be more violence and protests on the streets. On Thursday, July 12, 2018, the IMF has suggested for a more gradual approach, a step-by-step withdrawal of subsidy which will ultimately generate the exchequer a fund totaling around $300 million (£226m). The IMF said scrapping the fuel subsidies would allow more money to be spent on key areas including health and education.

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Delimart Plaza, Delmas 32, Port-au-Prince, Haiti being looted

Delimart Plaza, Delmas 32, Port-au-Prince, Haiti being looted

Here is a picture of Delimart Plaza in Delmas 32, Port-au-Prince, Haiti being looted during a protest over fuel price increase on July 7, 2018.

On Friday, July 6, 2018, when the Haitian Commerce Ministry and Economic Ministry issued a joint statement announcing an increase of 38%, 47% and 51% price for gasoline, diesel, and kerosene respectively, it triggered days of violent civil unrest and demonstrations. Major protests erupted in the country with demonstrators using burning tires and barricades to block major streets across the capital and in the northern city of Cap-Haitien. Dozens of shops were looted and burned and cars were set ablaze. At least four people were killed.

Western Premiere hotel in Petion-Ville was ransacked, banks and stores in Delmas were looted, and many flights were either cancelled or rescheduled.

On Saturday, July 17, 2018, looters pillaged burned and vandalized Delimart Plaza. Delimart Plaza is one of the biggest supermarket chains in the capital city, Port-au-Prince. The superstore was founded by Dr. Reginald Boulos in 2000 who is a medical doctor and former chairman of Intercontinental S.A. Since its foundation the shop kept growing to become the biggest supermarket chain in the entire city. It the best place for quality goods at the lowest price, especially the one at Delmas 32, Delimart is comparable to any Publix or Walmart grocery stores in the U.S as far as the range of products and prices are concerned. However, unfortunately, this shop has been completely destroyed by the violent agitators.

The local management is presently engaged in quantifying the damages, both in financial and human terms. As per news dated, July 11, 2018, the Delimart S.A has announced that their properties located in various locations in Haiti such as in Delmas 32, Delmas 30 and Clercine were looted and some burned. The management has decided to keep their shops closed until further notice. The Directorate General of Delimart is aware of the precarious and difficult situations that will arise due to this closure.

This closure of the stores will severely and lastingly affect hundreds of direct and indirect jobs. The local suppliers will bear the brunt of the negative effects. Moreover, the entire national economy will suffer with the rise of the unemployment rate as about 673 people will lose jobs in the stores due to this indefinite closure.

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Port-au-Prince on fire over gas prices hike

Port-au-Prince on fire over gas prices hike

Following an official notice of fuel price increases at the pump by the Government of Haiti, violent protests erupted. Major casualties include Deli-Mart, a major supermarket. Several cars parked in front of Hotel Best Western and Royal Oasis were burned to the ground.Barricade erupted in many streets, including the road to the only airport, preventing people from flying out of the country.

On Friday, July 6, 2018, when the civilians were busy with the Russia quarter-final world cup matches, the Government quietly published an official notice of fuel price hike at the pumps. As per government statement, this was done in order to comply with the IMF's "Staff-Monitored Program" (SMP) signed last February. Haitian daily newspaper Le Nouvelliste reports, prices for gasoline were to rise 38% while diesel prices were to go up 47% and kerosene 51%. The revised prices for the petroleum products, effective from July 7, 2018, in Haitian Currency, will be as follows (per gallon): Gasoline: 309 Gourdes; Diesel: 264 Gourdes; and Kerosene: 262 Gourdes. Before the rise, the prices for these products were: gasoline 224 gourdes; diesel 179 Gourds and kerosene 173 Gourdes.

The announcement triggered days of violent civil unrest, demonstrations erupted on Friday in Port-au-Prince. Western Premiere hotel in Petion-Ville was ransacked, banks and stores in Delmas were looted, many flights were either cancelled or rescheduled. Three people were killed on Friday as protesters used burning tires and barricades to block major streets. Demonstrations also broke out in Cap-Haitien, the second-largest city, as well as in the communes of Les Cayes, Jacmel and Petit-Goave. Following the riots, Haiti's Prime Minister Jack Guy Lafontant resigned on Saturday. As per last news, the Haitian government bowed to pressure and suspended the fuel price hike on Saturday after widespread violence.

IMF spokesman Gerry Rice told during a briefing, generalized fuel subsidy put a significant strain on Haiti's fiscal accounts. Earlier this year, Haiti signed a $96 million low interest agreement with the IMF and reduction of subsidy was one of the terms of that agreement. The country is currently facing double-digit inflation, a depreciating currency and slow growth. It also has a budget deficit of more than $150 million.

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Rafael L. Trujillo welcoming Paul Magloire in Santo Domingo

Rafael L. Trujillo welcoming Paul Magloire in Santo Domingo

Rafael L. Trujillo welcoming newly-elected Haitian President Paul Magloire in Ciudad Trujillo, Santo Domingo in February 1951. also present were, army officer Hector and Trujillo's son Ramfis.

Rafael Leónidas Trujillo Molina (born on October 24, 1891) was a Dominican politician, soldier and dictator, who ruled the Dominican Republic from February 1930 until his assassination in May 1961. Trujillo was killed by a group of rebels determined to topple his regime. He was Dominican President between 1930-1938 and 1942-1952. In 1937, he ordered the massacre that took more than 35,000 Haitian lives on charges of invading the Dominican Republic. It was launched by the army with common criminals released for these purposes against Haitians living in the Dominican Republic's northwestern frontier and in certain parts of the adjacent Cibao region. It was a shameful and brutal event that harmed his prestige in the entire world. Punishment for the atrocity amounted to an agreement in which a paltry US $525,000 was paid to the Haitian government. Haitian President Élie Lescot put the death toll at 12,168; in 1953, the Haitian historian Jean Price-Mars cited 12,136 deaths and 2,419 injuries. In 1975, Joaquín Balaguer, the Dominican Republic's interim Foreign Minister at the time of the massacre, put the number of dead at 17,000. Other estimates compiled by the Dominican historian Bernardo Vega went as high as 35,000. Before the massacre, Trujillo made his intentions towards the Haitian community clear in a short speech which he delivered on 2 October 1937 at a dance in his honor in Dajabón. He accused Haitians on charges of thefts of cattle, provisions, fruits, etc., and thus they were preventing Dominican people to live a peaceful life.

Trujillo was a man of bad temper, but had many fabricated justifications of such mass genocide. With the crash of world markets and the onset of the Great Depression in 1929, the price of sugar fell drastically, sugar production was cut, and the Haitian worker was no longer in demand in the Dominican Republic. In 1931, Trujillo took power and began to deport Haitians living in the Dominican Republic using discriminatory and inhuman policy to the Haitians. However, when in the 1950s, when the economic situation became reversed, he took a different tone because, by then he had accumulated about 75% of the Dominican sugar mills and had forced many U.S. competitors out of business. To maximize his profit, he turned to the Haitian workers. In 1952, Trujillo and Haiti's President, Paul Magloire, signed a bilateral agreement in which the Dominican Republic bought 16,500 Haitian workers directly from the Haitian government. These migratory Haitian sugar cane cutters were kept in wooden barracks where there was no running water, no electricity, and no bathrooms; the workers were not allowed to leave except to cut sugar cane. Armed guards from the sugar companies kept close watch on them. However, the Haitian government received compensation in selling these men; the money never trickled down into the worker's hands.

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Paul Eugene Magloire, born in Quartier Morin

Paul Eugene Magloire, born in Quartier Morin

Paul Magloire, an army colonel who in 1950 became president of Haiti.

Paul Magloire was born in 1907 in Quartier Morin, the son of a high-ranking military officer in Haiti's army. Magloire was ousted by a coup and replaced by François "Doc" Duvalier.

Rafael Leónidas Trujillo Molina (born on October 24, 1891) was a Dominican politician, soldier and dictator, who ruled the Dominican Republic from February 1930 until his assassination in May 1961. Trujillo was killed by a group of rebels determined to topple his regime. He was Dominican President between 1930-1938 and 1942-1952. In 1937, he ordered the massacre that took more than 35,000 Haitian lives on charges of invading the Dominican Republic. It was launched by the army with common criminals released for these purposes against Haitians living in the Dominican Republic's northwestern frontier and in certain parts of the adjacent Cibao region. It was a shameful and brutal event that harmed his prestige in the entire world. Punishment for the atrocity amounted to an agreement in which a paltry US $525,000 was paid to the Haitian government. Haitian President Élie Lescot put the death toll at 12,168; in 1953, the Haitian historian Jean Price-Mars cited 12,136 deaths and 2,419 injuries. In 1975, Joaquín Balaguer, the Dominican Republic's interim Foreign Minister at the time of the massacre, put the number of dead at 17,000. Other estimates compiled by the Dominican historian Bernardo Vega went as high as 35,000. Before the massacre, Trujillo made his intentions towards the Haitian community clear in a short speech which he delivered on 2 October 1937 at a dance in his honor in Dajabón. He accused Haitians on charges of thefts of cattle, provisions, fruits, etc., and thus they were preventing Dominican people to live a peaceful life.

Trujillo was a man of bad temper, but had many fabricated justifications of such mass genocide. With the crash of world markets and the onset of the Great Depression in 1929, the price of sugar fell drastically, sugar production was cut, and the Haitian worker was no longer in demand in the Dominican Republic. In 1931, Trujillo took power and began to deport Haitians living in the Dominican Republic using discriminatory and inhuman policy to the Haitians. However, when in the 1950s, when the economic situation became reversed, he took a different tone because, by then he had accumulated about 75% of the Dominican sugar mills and had forced many U.S. competitors out of business. To maximize his profit, he turned to the Haitian workers. In 1952, Trujillo and Haiti's President, Paul Magloire, signed a bilateral agreement in which the Dominican Republic bought 16,500 Haitian workers directly from the Haitian government. These migratory Haitian sugar cane cutters were kept in wooden barracks where there was no running water, no electricity, and no bathrooms; the workers were not allowed to leave except to cut sugar cane. Armed guards from the sugar companies kept close watch on them. However, the Haitian government received compensation in selling these men; the money never trickled down into the worker's hands.

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Paul Eugene Magloire visit to the United States in January, 1955

Paul Eugene Magloire visit to the United States in January, 1955

Here is a picture of Haitian president Paul Eugène Magloire on the far left and American President, Dwight D. Eisenhower on the far right with their respective wives in Washington, D.C., United States,1955.

During his visit to the United States paid a visit to Fisk University in Nashville. He received an Honorary Doctor of Laws Degree by the president of the University, Charles S. Johnson

On February 22, 1954 - President Paul Magloire appeared on the Cover of Time Magazine, the world's largest circulation for a weekly news magazine.

Many consider Magloire's period as Haiti's golden age - during his rule, tourism reached at its peak and Haitian coffee exports flourished with high prices. He refurbished towns and built roads, public square, a cathedral, the country's first major dam and other infrastructure projects and cultivated good relations with the Dominican Republic and instituted a Five Year Plan in 1951 to boost agricultural productions. Attempts were made to invite foreign investments and implement economic and social planning. Women were given voting power and direct popular election of the president was introduced.

During his rule Haiti became a favorite tourist spot for American and European tourists. His anti-communist position also gained favorable reception from the US government. Magloire banned the Marxist Popular Socialist Party (PSP) and Peasant Worker Movement Party (MOP) in December 1950. In 1954, as part of the 150th anniversary of Haiti's independence and the major urban and rural infrastructure projects undertaken on that occasion and also because of Haiti's economic recovery, Paul Magloire was honored by Time Magazine. On February 22, 1954 - President Paul Magloire appeared on the Cover of Time Magazine. A year later he was honored at the White House. Magloire's official visit to the United States was between January 26 and February 6, 1955. He was on a nine-day official visit to Washington and New York. After that he made an unofficial six-day visit to Nashville, Chicago and Boston. President Magloire and Mrs. Magloire and their entourage were received by the vice president Nixon at Andrews Air Force Base. Nixon was also President of the Senate and Speaker of the House of Deputies.

For his significant achievement and as Head of State, he received a warm welcome and honor on January 31, 1955, with a ticker-tape parade in New York from the Battery to City Hall. The first of such parade was held on the opening ceremony of the Statue of Liberty on October 28, 1886. President Magloire's official accommodation was provided at the Lincoln's Bedroom, White House. President Eisenhower and Mrs. Eisenhower welcomed President Magloire and Mrs Yolette Leconte Magloire.

Magloire addressed at the 84th joint session of Congress where he praised President Eisenhower's civil rights record. He was the third Negro to address a joint session (Liberian President Edwin Barclay in 1943, Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie in 1954). He also praised President Eisenhower's effort to eliminate all sorts of misunderstanding which is a common objective for the countries in the western hemisphere. A state dinner was followed by official address to the United States Congress.

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The production of Sisal in Haiti

The production of Sisal in Haiti

Here is a picture of a Sisal Plant Factory in Port-au-Prince, Haiti in 1950.This sisal plan was built to produce fiber for the United States, Department of Defense Sisal is used for a variety of materials such as furniture, construction, cars, plastics and paper products.

Sisal is a stiffer fiber stripped from the leaves of the Mexican agave plant which is spun into a yarn-like material. The sisal fiber is traditionally used for rope and twine, but has many other uses like paper, cloth, footwear, hats, bags, carpets, and dart boards. Its strongest natural fibers make it incredibly durable. Sisal rugs are the best fit for high-traffic areas in the home because of its strength, durability, ability to stretch, affinity for certain dyestuffs, and resistance to deterioration in saltwater in places like hallways and entryways. Sisal is also used in low-cost and specialty paper, mattresses, wire rope cores, filters, buffing cloth, geotextiles carpets, handicrafts, and Macramé. Sisal's natural creamy white hue can be dyed any color to suit your interior design scheme. The fibers from the leaves can be used in their coarse, raw state which is more inflexible or can be blended with other fibers, such as wool, to produce a softer material.

Agave Sisalana is a succulent plant closely related to the plant which brings us tequila. Since sisal is an agave, it can be distilled to make a tequila-like liquor. A sweetener is often extracted from its agave nectar (also called agave syrup) and used as an alternative to sugar in cooking. It grows in dry, desert climates such as the plains of Mexico and other parts of the New World. Dedicated sisal farms have been established, especially in Africa and Brazil. Sisal was used by the Aztecs and the Mayans to make crude fabrics and paper.

The plant is quite hardy and can grow year round in hot climates and even in arid or dry regions that are typically unsuitable for other crops. Its growth depends on the level of rainfall, the altitude, and the location. Its production cycle can be up to 12 years during which it can produce up to a total of 180 to 240 leaves for its growth and crop for this fiber can grow up to four tonnes per hectare. It can grow to upwards of 15 feet in height and can have numerous plants and baby plants linked with it. Sisal has been considered as an environmentally friendly strengthening agent to replace asbestos and fibreglass in composite materials in various uses including the automobile industry.

Haiti is one of the poorest countries in the Western Hemisphere where only 11.3% of the land is well suited for agriculture, where 14% people are unemployed and about 60% people live below the poverty line, the production of Sisal can play an important role in its economy. It could be a good means to generate income and bring the unemployed out of frustration.

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Paul E. Magloire addresses joint session of congress with Richard Nixon

Paul E. Magloire addresses joint session of congress with Richard Nixon

Haitian President Paul E. Magloire addresses a joint session of U.S. congress in 1955. He is being supported by U.S. Vice President Richard Nixon and House Speaker.

In January 1955, Haitian President Paul Eugene Magloire was invited to the United States for an official visit and stayed at the White House with the President and Mrs. Eisenhower. He received a warm welcome and was given a ticker-tape parade, possibly due to his anti-communist stand. On January 25, 1955, Paul E. Magloire addressed at the 84th joint session of Congress where he praised President Eisenhower's civil rights record. He was the third Negro to address a joint session (Liberian President Edwin Barclay in 1943, Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie in 1954). He also praised President Eisenhower's effort to eliminate all sorts of misunderstanding which is a common objective for the countries in the western hemisphere. He visited Washington with Mrs. Magloire on a two week trip as a guest of U.S President. They were welcomed at the airport by Vice President Richard Nixon and State Secretary John Foster Dulles and their wives. Following this trip, the U.S vice president Richard Nixon visited Haiti on March 3, 1955.

During his trip, Nixon had a formal meeting with the Haitian cabinet at the Presidential Palace and a conference where he expressed his concern for a paltry sanction (two million dollars) to Haiti for infrastructural development by International Bank. However, he was hopeful about the negotiation of a loan amount of $7 million by Export-Import Bank for the Artibonite dam and irrigation project (On April 20, 1955, the fund was sanctioned). He remained sincere and attentive all through the conference and admitted the need for a grant-in-aid to rehabilitate the loss caused by Hurricane Hazel in October 1954. During his short trip, Nixon once made a break from Magloire and met a woman with a donkey on the road. He asked the lady through his interpreter what is the name of her donkey? The lady replied, donkey!

There are many unknown facts which if revealed, could open new chapters in history or shed light on the dark side of the characters of great statesmen and politicians. "Walking Through Walls: A Memoir" is such a book written by Philip Smith. Author's father, Lew Philip was the interior designer of the White House. Lew was a psychic healer as well.
Before the visit of Richard Nixon to Haiti, Haitian President Paul Magloire made several phone calls to Philip's father because he needed the guest rooms of his presidential palace freshened up as soon as possible since he was expecting a visit from Nixon to review Haitian troops. However, his over-enthusiastic hospitality could not hide his real motive; it was quite clear to the White House that he wanted to keep the U.S happy because he was wanting to drop a pot of foreign aid on himself, which would never see the light of the day after it landed silently on his Swiss bank account. Next part of the story is truly shocking. When the author's father Lew arrived in Haiti and completed the decoration as was asked for, Mrs. Magloire was very satisfied with his work, but in exchange, she asked her guards to hold Lew at gunpoint and forced him to newly decorate her whole palace before leaving for the U.S. Before Lew, one Italian decorator went missing in Haiti forever. It took Lew about six months to complete the decoration to the most splendid palace imaginable at an astronomical cost and Lew received a single 'glass paperweight with Magloire's portrait' as a price for his service. Lew's family was in complete darkness on his whereabouts in Haiti, his wife, preparing for widowhood, moved from door to door in the U.S. but none cared for a decorator's wife.

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Paul Magloire ("Kanson Fe) being decorated by President Dumarsais Estime

Paul Magloire (

Here is a picture of General Paul Magloire being decorated by Haitian President Dumarsais Estimé

Magloire was from the rising, black middle-class in Haiti. "Kanson Fé" or "Iron Pants"), as he was known, Magloire overthrew the disastrous regime of President Elie Lescot in 1946. He later allowed the election of a liberal black president, Dumarsais Estimé. When President Dumarsais Estimé, tried to extend his term of office in 1950, with the help of a local elite, Magloire ousted him and took power.

Paul Magloire ("Kanson Fé) being Decorated by President Dumarsais Estimé
Paul Eugène Magloire (July 19, 1907 - July 12, 2001) was a Haitian general's son. He joined the army in 1930 and became Police Chief of Port-au-Prince in 1944. In 1946, he participated in a successful coup against President Élie Lescot. In 1950, while he was serving as an army general, he ousted President Dumarsais Estimé with the help of a local elite and installed himself as ruler.

Before the long dictatorship of the Duvaliers which took the country back again in a period of oppression, his period of rule as president between 1950 and 1956 is marked as a period of unusual peace and efforts at modernization. Many consider Magloire's period as Haiti's golden age - during his era, tourism reached at its peak and Haitian coffee exports drew high prices. He refurbished towns and built roads, a cathedral, public square, the country's first major dam and other infrastructure projects and cultivated good relations with the Dominican Republic. Attempts were made to invite foreign investments and implement economic and social planning. Women were given voting power and direct popular election of the president was introduced.

However, the good days ended in 1954 when Haiti was hit by Hurricane Hazel. The hurricane inflicted heavy damage on the economy, relief funds were stolen, and Magloire's popularity fell. After two years, he was ousted by the military and went into exile in New York. When François Duvalier took the presidency, he stripped Magloire of his Haïtian citizenship. At the end of Duvalier dictatorship in 1986, when Jean-Claude Duvalier (Baby Doc) fled to France, Magloire returned to Haiti. He was an unofficial adviser to Henri Namphy, who briefly ruled Haiti in 1988. It was a mark of appreciation for his past deed to the country.

The mulattos were happy under the reign of Magloire because their shameless privilege and racism received patronage and reached the apogee of their power, and Magloire's tough stand (Kanson Fé) with the mulattos took them to a height of command and enjoyment. He restored the elites to the prominence.

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Mrs. Jamba of Haiti, oldest woman in Human History, is holding strong at 125

Mrs. Jamba of Haiti, oldest woman in Human History, is holding strong at 125

Bénicia Souffrant, better known as "Madan Janba", is the oldest living woman on planet earth in 2018. Madan Janba is 125 years old and lives in the locality of Moyette, 8th communal section of Petit-Goâve.

"Madan Janba" retains her mental capacity. She continues to think logically thinking; she argues and has a strong personality. Mrs. Jamba is unable to see very well. She has some hearing problems and sometimes complains of physical pains.

Officially, the oldest woman in the world is 118 year old Emma Morano who was born on November 29, 1899 in Italy. Due to our record keeping system, we may never be able to prove that Bénicia Souffrant, "Madan Janba", is in fact the oldest living woman on earth in the year 2018

On Friday, March 23, 2018, Jacky Lumarque, Rector of Quisqueya University and former Prime Minister Jacques Edouard Alexis visited Mrs. Jamba, living in the 8th communal section of Petit-Goâve. As per local information, Mrs. Jamba is almost deaf and blind and at 125 years of age, she is the oldest human being living in Haiti now. Her real name is Bénicia Souffrant, but she is better known under the name "Madam Jamba". She has already turned 126 on last June 24th, 2018.

The Rector of Quisqueya University has told the correspondents present on the site that from now on his university will take care of Mrs. Jamba. She will live the rest of her life in her new and comfortable house. The University has hired two local women for her care and support. They will help to maintain her eating and other habits unchanged and provide means for a better life. Lumarque also said that when a person reaches 100 years of age, such person becomes a heritage. He has a friend who is the director of the 'Claire Heureuse' Foundation that looks after the elderly. As per his gathered information, Mrs. Jamba is facing a lack of supervision and needs regular monitoring-- 'Claire Heureuse' will look at that.

One week before this visit, another delegation from Quisqueya University led by Mrs. Judith Auguste, visited Mrs. Jamba. The old lady was quite happy to welcome the group. Deputy Mayor Delor Desgranges who was present at the delegation brought gifts for the lady. While talking to the correspondents present, Mrs. Judith expressed her University's future plan to take care of this lady till her last day. Her condition of health will be assessed by a diagnostic report under the supervision of Lumarque, the Rector of University. As per Lumarque's statement, the objective of this earlier delegation was to explore and initiate the first contacts with Mrs. Jamba.

Presently, the oldest woman living in the world is Emma Morano, a tiny, 116-year-old Italian woman whose authenticity of age has been officially confirmed. If Mrs. Jamba can prove her age officially, she would the oldest living woman on the earth.

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